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Re: Patch to remove minor modes in tutorial

From: Lennart Borgman
Subject: Re: Patch to remove minor modes in tutorial
Date: Sun, 30 Jul 2006 22:38:53 +0200
User-agent: Thunderbird (Windows/20060719)

Richard Stallman wrote:
                     ;; These are not mentioned but are basic:
                     (ESC-prefix [27])
                     (Control-X-prefix [?\C-x])
                     (mode-specific-command-prefix [?\C-c])

Please put that constant list into a variable
instead of embedding it inside the function.
                  (lambda(left right)
                    (let ((x (append (cadr left)  nil))
                          (y (append (cadr right) nil)))
                      (while (and x y
                                  (equal (car x) (car y)))
                        (setq x (cdr x))
                        (setq y (cdr y)))

Please give this a defun and give it a doc string that explains
precisely what it tests.
                  (insert-button (car remark)
                                 (lambda(b) (interactive)
                                   (let ((value (button-get b 'value)))
                                     (help--describe-nonstandard-key value)))
                                 'value (cdr remark)
                                 'follow-link t
                                 'face '(:inherit link
                                                  :background "yellow"))

What is the purpose of presenting that button?
What does it do when the user clicks on it?
Comments have to say such things.
Done now - I hope the comments tell what is needed now.
In general, your code has hardly any comments.  Please add comments enough
to make it _clear_.

I have attached the new version.

However I noticed a strange thing when testing this on w32 from 2006-07-02. If I start with "emacs -Q", then load the attached file and evaluate it with eval-buffer, then the old `help-with-tutorial' from help-fns.el may still be bound to C-h t. (I actually used F1 t.)

I check this with "F1 k F1 t". If I now call eval-buffer again and "F1 k F1 t" the new definition of help-with-tutorial from the attached file will be shown.
(defun help--describe-nonstandard-key(value)
  "Give more information about a changed key binding.
This is used in `help-with-tutorial'.  The information includes
the key sequence that no longer has a default binding, the
default binding and the current binding.  It also tells in what
keymap the new binding has been done and how to access the
function in the default binding from the keyboard.

For cua-mode key bindings that try to combine CUA key bindings
with default Emacs bindings information about this is shown."
  (let ((maps (current-active-maps t)))
    (with-output-to-temp-buffer (help-buffer)
      (help-setup-xref (list #'help-describe-nonstandard-key value)
      (with-current-buffer (help-buffer)
        (insert "Emacs default key binding has been changed in your setup:\n\n")
        (let ((inhibit-read-only t))
           ((eq (car value) 'cua-mode)
             "You have enabled `cua-mode'.

When `cua-mode' is enabled, you can use C-z, C-x, C-c, and C-v to
undo, cut, copy, and paste in addition to the normal Emacs
bindings.  The C-x and C-c keys only do cut and copy when the
region is active, so in most cases, they do not conflict with the
normal function of these prefix keys.

If you really need to perform a command which starts with one of
the prefix keys even when the region is active, you have three
- press the prefix key twice very quickly (within 0.2 seconds),
- press the prefix key and the following key within 0.2 seconds, or
- use the SHIFT key with the prefix key, i.e. C-S-x or C-S-c."))
           ((eq (car value) 'current-binding)
            (let ((cb    (nth 1 value))
                  (db    (nth 2 value))
                  (key   (nth 3 value))
                  (where (nth 4 value))
              ;; Try to find the map where the binding occurs
              (while maps
                (let* ((m (car maps))
                       (mb (lookup-key m key t)))
                  (setq maps (cdr maps))
                  (when (eq mb cb)
                    (setq map m)
                    (setq maps nil))))
              (when map
                (if (eq map global-map)
                    (setq mapsym 'global-map)
                  (mapatoms (lambda (s)
                              (when (and (boundp s)
                                         (keymapp (symbol-value s)))
                                (unless (eq s 'map)
                                  (when (equal map (symbol-value s))
                                    (when (member map (current-active-maps))
                                      (setq mapsym s)))))))))
              (insert "Emacs default binding for the key "
                      (key-description key)
                      " is the function `")
              (insert (format "%s" db))
              (insert "'.  "
                      "This key has however been rebound to the function `")
              (insert (format "%s" cb))
              (insert "'.")
              (when mapsym
                (insert "  This binding is in the keymap variable `")
                (insert (format "%s" mapsym))
                (insert "'."))
              (if (string= where "")
                  (unless (keymapp db)
                    (insert "\n\nYou can use M-x "
                            (format "%s" db)
                            " RET instead."))
                (insert "\n\nWith you current key bindings"
                        " you can use the key "
                        " to get the function `"
                        (format "%s" db)
        (fill-region (point-min)(point))

(defvar help-tutorial-default-keys
    ;; These are not mentioned but are basic:
    (ESC-prefix [27])
    (Control-X-prefix [?\C-x])
    (mode-specific-command-prefix [?\C-c])

    (save-buffers-kill-emacs [?\C-x ?\C-c])

    ;; * SUMMARY
    (scroll-up [?\C-v])
    (scroll-down [?\M-v])
    (recenter [?\C-l])

    (forward-char [?\C-f])
    (backward-char [?\C-b])

    (forward-word [?\M-f])
    (backward-word [?\M-b])

    (next-line [?\C-n])
    (previous-line [?\C-p])

    (move-beginning-of-line [?\C-a])
    (move-end-of-line [?\C-e])

    (backward-sentence [?\M-a])
    (forward-sentence [?\M-e])

    (beginning-of-buffer [?\M-<])
    (end-of-buffer [?\M->])

    (universal-argument [?\C-u])

    (keyboard-quit [?\C-g])

    (downcase-region [?\C-x ?\C-l])

    ;; * WINDOWS
    (delete-other-windows [?\C-x ?1])
    ;; C-u 0 C-l
    ;; Type CONTROL-h k CONTROL-f.

    ;; C-u 8 * to insert ********.

    (delete-backward-char [backspace])
    (delete-char [?\C-d])

    (backward-kill-word [(meta backspace)])
    (kill-word [?\M-d])

    (kill-line [?\C-k])
    (kill-sentence [?\M-k])

    (set-mark-command address@hidden)
    (set-mark-command [?\C- ])
    (kill-region [?\C-w])
    (yank [?\C-y])
    (yank-pop [?\M-y])

    ;; * UNDO
    (advertised-undo [?\C-x ?u])
    (advertised-undo [?\C-x ?u])

    ;; * FILES
    (find-file [?\C-x ?\C-f])
    (save-buffer [?\C-x ?\C-s])

    ;; * BUFFERS
    (list-buffers [?\C-x ?\C-b])
    (switch-to-buffer [?\C-x ?b])
    (save-some-buffers [?\C-x ?s])

    ;; C-x      Character eXtend.  Followed by one character.
    (execute-extended-command [?\M-x])

    ;; C-x C-f          Find file
    ;; C-x C-s          Save file
    ;; C-x s            Save some buffers
    ;; C-x C-b          List buffers
    ;; C-x b            Switch buffer
    ;; C-x C-c          Quit Emacs
    ;; C-x 1            Delete all but one window
    ;; C-x u            Undo

    ;; * MODE LINE
    (describe-mode [?\C-h ?m])

    (set-fill-column [?\C-x ?f])
    (fill-paragraph [?\M-q])

    ;; * SEARCHING
    (isearch-forward [?\C-s])
    (isearch-backward [?\C-r])

    (split-window-vertically [?\C-x ?2])
    (scroll-other-window [?\C-\M-v])
    (other-window [?\C-x ?o])
    (find-file-other-window [?\C-x ?4 ?\C-f])

    (keyboard-escape-quit [27 27 27])

    ;; The most basic HELP feature is C-h c
    (describe-key-briefly [?\C-h ?c])
    (describe-key [?\C-h ?k])

    ;; F10

    (iconify-or-deiconify-frame [?\C-z])
  "Default Emacs key bindings that are used in the tutorial")

(defun help-tutorial-sort-keys (left right)
  "Sort predicate for use with `help-tutorial-default-keys'.
This is a predicate function to `sort'.

The sorting is for presentation purpose only and is done on the
key sequence."
  (let ((x (append (cadr left)  nil))
        (y (append (cadr right) nil)))
    ;; Skip the front part of the key sequences if they are equal:
    (while (and x y
                (equal (car x) (car y)))
      (setq x (cdr x))
      (setq y (cdr y)))
    ;; Try to make a comparition that is useful for presentation (this
    ;; could be made nicer perhaps):
    (let ((cx (car x))
          (cy (car y)))
      (cond ((and (listp cx)
                  (listp cy))
             (> (length cx)(length cy)))
            ((listp cx)
            ((listp cy)
            ((and (symbolp cx)
                  (symbolp cy))
             (string< (symbol-name cy)
                      (symbol-name cx)))
            ((symbolp cx)
            ((symbolp cy)
             (> (car x)(car y)))))))

(defun help-with-tutorial (&optional arg dont-ask-for-revert)
  "Select the Emacs learn-by-doing tutorial.
If there is a tutorial version written in the language
of the selected language environment, that version is used.
If there's no tutorial in that language, `TUTORIAL' is selected.
With ARG, you are asked to choose which language.
If DONT-ASK-FOR-REVERT is non-nil the buffer is reverted without
any question when restarting the tutorial."
  (interactive "P")
  (let* ((lang (if arg
                   (let ((minibuffer-setup-hook minibuffer-setup-hook))
                     (add-hook 'minibuffer-setup-hook
                     (read-language-name 'tutorial "Language: " "English"))
                 (if (get-language-info current-language-environment 'tutorial)
         (filename (get-language-info lang 'tutorial))
         ;; Choose a buffer name including the language so that
         ;; several languages can be tested simultaneously:
         (tut-buf-name (concat "TUTORIAL (" lang ")"))
         (old-tut-buf (get-buffer tut-buf-name))
         (old-tut-win (when old-tut-buf (get-buffer-window old-tut-buf t)))
         (old-tut-is-ok (when old-tut-buf
                          (not (buffer-modified-p old-tut-buf))))
         (point-after-message 1))
    ;; Try to display the tutorial buffer before asking to revert it.
    ;; If the tutorial buffer is shown in some window make sure it is
    ;; selected and displayed:
    (if old-tut-win
          (select-window (get-buffer-window old-tut-buf t))))
      ;; Is there an old tutorial buffer? Then display it:
      (when old-tut-buf
        (switch-to-buffer old-tut-buf)))
    ;; If the tutorial buffer has been changed then ask if it should
    ;; be reverted:
    (when (and old-tut-buf
               (not old-tut-is-ok))
      (setq old-tut-is-ok
            (if dont-ask-for-revert
              (not (y-or-n-p
                    "You have changed the Tutorial buffer.  Revert it? ")))))
    ;; Use whole frame for tutorial
    ;; (Re)build the tutorial buffer if it is not ok
    (unless old-tut-is-ok
      (switch-to-buffer (get-buffer-create tut-buf-name))
      (let ((inhibit-read-only t))
      (message "Preparing tutorial ...")(sit-for 0)

      (setq default-directory (expand-file-name "~/"))
      (setq buffer-auto-save-file-name nil)
      (insert-file-contents (expand-file-name filename data-directory))

      ;; Check if there are key bindings that may disturb the
      ;; tutorial.  If so tell the user.
      (let* (changed-keys
             (default-keys (sort help-tutorial-default-keys
             ;; On window system suspend Emacs is replaced in the
             ;; default keymap so honor this here. (Is this true for
             ;; all window-system?  It is at least done in mac-win.el,
             ;; w32-win.el and x-win.el.)
             (suspend-emacs (if window-system
             ;; Make key bindings for moving between link fields in
             ;; the list of changed key bindings.
             (tab-map (let ((map (make-sparse-keymap)))
                        (define-key map [tab] 'forward-button)
                        (define-key map [(shift tab)] 'backward-button)
                        (define-key map [(meta tab)] 'backward-button)

        (let (expr
          ;; Check if the default Emacs key bindings that are used in
          ;; the tutorial have been changed.:
          (dolist (kdf default-keys)
            (setq key     (nth 1 kdf))
            (setq def-fun (nth 0 kdf))
            (setq def-fun-txt (format "%s" def-fun))
            (setq rem-fun (command-remapping def-fun))
            (setq key-fun (key-binding key))
            (setq where (where-is-internal (if rem-fun rem-fun def-fun)))
            (if where
                  (setq where (key-description (car where)))
                  (when (and (< 10 (length where))
                             (string= (substring where 0 (length "<menu-bar>"))
                    (setq where "The menus")))
              (setq where ""))
            (setq remark nil)
                (cond ( (eq key-fun def-fun)
                      ( (eq key-fun (command-remapping def-fun))
                        (setq remark (list "Remapped" nil))
                      ;; cua-mode specials:
                      ( (and cua-mode
                             (or (and
                                  (equal key [?\C-v])
                                  (eq key-fun 'cua-paste))
                                  (equal key [?\C-z])
                                  (eq key-fun 'undo))))
                        (setq remark (list "cua-mode, more info" 'cua-mode))
                      ( (and cua-mode
                              (and (eq def-fun 'ESC-prefix)
                                   (equal key-fun
                                            (118 . cua-repeat-replace-region))))
                              (and (eq def-fun 'mode-specific-command-prefix)
                                   (equal key-fun
                                            (timeout . copy-region-as-kill))))
                              (and (eq def-fun 'Control-X-prefix)
                                   (equal key-fun
                                          '(keymap (timeout . kill-region))))))
                        (setq remark (list "cua-mode replacement" 'cua-mode))
                         ((eq def-fun 'mode-specific-command-prefix)
                          (setq def-fun-txt "\"C-c prefix\""))
                         ((eq def-fun 'Control-X-prefix)
                          (setq def-fun-txt "\"C-x prefix\""))
                         ((eq def-fun 'ESC-prefix)
                          (setq def-fun-txt "\"ESC prefix\"")))
                        (setq where "Same key")
                      ;; viper-mode specials:
                      ( (and (boundp 'viper-mode)
                             (eq viper-current-state 'vi-state)
                             (or (and (eq def-fun 'isearch-forward)
                                      (eq key-fun 'viper-isearch-forward))
                                 (and (eq def-fun 'isearch-backward)
                                      (eq key-fun 'viper-isearch-backward))))
                      ;; The strange handling of C-delete and
                      ;; C-backspace:
                      ( (when normal-erase-is-backspace
                          (or (and (equal key [C-delete])
                                   (equal key-fun 'kill-word))
                              (and (equal key [C-backspace])
                                   (equal key-fun 'backward-kill-word))))
                      ( t
                        (setq remark
                              (list "more info" 'current-binding
                                    key-fun def-fun key where))
              (add-to-list 'changed-keys
                           (list key def-fun def-fun-txt where remark)))))

        ;; Clear message:
        (unless dont-ask-for-revert
          (message "")(sit-for 0))

        ;; If some Emacs default key bindings have been changed then
        ;; display the changes in the tutorial buffer with some
        ;; explanatory links:
        (when (or changed-keys
                  (and (boundp 'viper-mode)
          ;; Need the custom button face for viper buttons:
          (when (and (boundp 'viper-mode)
            (require 'cus-edit))
          (let ((start (point))
            (insert "
 NOTICE: One of the main purposes of the tutorial is that You should
 be able to learn some important Emacs default key bindings.  However
 when you started the tutorial the following key bindings used in the
 tutorial had been changed from Emacs default:\n\n" )
            (when changed-keys
              (let ((frm "   %-9s %-27s %-11s %s\n"))
                (insert (format frm "KEY" "DEFAULT BINDING" "IS NOW ON" 
              (dolist (tk changed-keys)
                (let* ((def-fun     (nth 1 tk))
                       (key         (nth 0 tk))
                       (def-fun-txt (nth 2 tk))
                       (where       (nth 3 tk))
                       (remark      (nth 4 tk))
                       (rem-fun (command-remapping def-fun))
                       (key-txt (key-description key))
                       (key-fun (key-binding key))
                  (unless (eq def-fun key-fun)
                    ;; Insert key binding description:
                    (insert "   " key-txt " ")
                    (setq tot-len (length key-txt))
                    (when (> 9 tot-len)
                      (insert (make-string (- 9 tot-len) ? ))
                      (setq tot-len 9))
                    ;; Insert a link describing the old binding:
                    (insert-button def-fun-txt
                                   'value def-fun
                                   (lambda(button) (interactive)
                                      (button-get button 'value)))
                                   'follow-link t
                                   'face '(:inherit link
                                                    :background "yellow"))
                    (setq tot-len (+ tot-len (length def-fun-txt)))
                    (when (> 36 tot-len)
                      (insert (make-string (- 36 tot-len) ? )))
                    (when (listp where)
                      (setq where "list"))
                    ;; Tell where the old binding is now:
                    (insert (format " %-11s " where))
                    ;; Insert a link with more information, for example
                    ;; current binding and keymap or information about
                    ;; cua-mode replacements:
                    (insert-button (car remark)
                                   (lambda(b) (interactive)
                                     (let ((value (button-get b 'value)))
                                       (help--describe-nonstandard-key value)))
                                   'value (cdr remark)
                                   'follow-link t
                                   'face '(:inherit link
                                                    :background "yellow"))
                    (insert "\n")))))

            ;; Viper turns itself off in the tutorial buffer by
            ;; default. Explain this and add some more information
            ;; about it:
            (when (and (boundp 'viper-mode)
              (insert "\n   INFORMATION ABOUT VIPER\n")
               ((eq viper-current-state 'emacs-state)
                (insert "
   You have enabled Viper mode, but in the tutorial buffer Viper
   mode is currently turned off.  You can however turn it on if
   you want to.  This may enable you to see what key bindings
   that Viper conflicts with:\n     ")
                (insert-button " Turn on Viper here! "
                               (lambda(b) (interactive)
                                 (let ((arg (button-get b 'value)))
                                   (set-buffer-modified-p t)
                                   (help-with-tutorial arg t)))
                               'value arg
                               'follow-link t
                               'face 'custom-button
                               'mouse-face 'custom-button-mouse
                ;;(insert ")")
                (insert "
   You have enabled Viper mode in the tutorial buffer.  Some of
   the changed key bindings above depends on the Viper state.
   When you started the tutorial the Viper state was ")
                 ((eq viper-current-state 'vi-state)
                  (insert "vi."))
                  (insert "some insert state.")))
                (insert "\n     ")
                (insert-button " Turn off Viper here! "
                               (lambda(b) (interactive)
                                 (let ((arg (button-get b 'value)))
                                   (kill-buffer (current-buffer))
                                   (help-with-tutorial arg t)))
                               'value arg
                               'follow-link t
                               'face 'custom-button
                               'mouse-face 'custom-button-mouse)
                (insert "  ")
                 ((eq viper-current-state 'vi-state)
                  (insert-button " Restart tutorial in Viper insert state! "
                                 (lambda(b) (interactive)
                                   (let ((arg (button-get b 'value)))
                                     (viper-insert nil)
                                     (set-buffer-modified-p t)
                                     (help-with-tutorial arg t)))
                                 'value arg
                                 'follow-link t
                                 'face 'custom-button
                                 'mouse-face 'custom-button-mouse))
                 ((not (eq viper-current-state 'vi-state))
                  (insert-button " Restart tutorial in Viper vi state! "
                                 (lambda(b) (interactive)
                                   (let ((arg (button-get b 'value))
                                          (cond ((eq viper-current-state 
                                                ((eq viper-current-state 
                                                ((eq viper-current-state 
                                                (t 'viper-change-state-to-vi)
                                     (call-interactively cmd)
                                     (set-buffer-modified-p t)
                                     (help-with-tutorial arg t)))
                                 'value arg
                                 'follow-link t
                                 'face 'custom-button
                                 'mouse-face 'custom-button-mouse)))))
              (insert "\n   If you want to learn Viper keys please see the ")
              (insert-button "Viper manual"
                             (lambda(button) (interactive)
                               (info-other-window "(viper)")
                               (message "Type C-x 0 to close the new window"))
                             'follow-link t
                             'face '(:inherit link
                                              :background "yellow"))
              (insert ".\n"))

            (insert "
 It is legitimate to change key bindings, but changed bindings do not
 correspond to what the tutorial says.  (See also " )
            (insert-button "Key Binding Conventions"
                           (lambda(button) (interactive)
                              "(elisp) Key Binding Conventions")
                             (message "Type C-x 0 to close the new window"))
                           'follow-link t
                           'face '(:inherit link
                                            :background "yellow"))
            (insert ".)\n\n")
            (setq end (point))
            ;; Make the area with information about change key
            ;; bindings stand out:
            (put-text-property start end
                               ;; The default warning face does not
                               ;;look good in this situation. Instead
                               ;;try something that could be
                               ;;recognized from warnings in normal
                               ;; 'font-lock-warning-face
                               (list :background "yellow" :foreground "#c00"))
            ;; Make it possible to use Tab/S-Tab between fields in
            ;; this area:
            (put-text-property start end 'local-map tab-map)
            ;; Make this area read-only:
            (put-text-property start end 'read-only t))))

      (setq point-after-message (point))

      (goto-char (point-min))
      (search-forward "\n<<")
      ;; Convert the <<...>> line to the proper [...] line,
      ;; or just delete the <<...>> line if a [...] line follows.
      (cond ((save-excursion
               (forward-line 1)
               (looking-at "\\["))
             (delete-region (point) (progn (forward-line 1) (point))))
            ((looking-at "<<Blank lines inserted.*>>")
             (replace-match "[Middle of page left blank for didactic purposes.  
 Text continues below]"))
             (looking-at "<<")
             (replace-match "[")
             (search-forward ">>")
             (replace-match "]")))
      (let ((n (- (window-height (selected-window))
                  (count-lines (point-min) (point))
        (if (< n 8)
              ;; For a short gap, we don't need the [...] line,
              ;; so delete it.
              (delete-region (point) (progn (end-of-line) (point)))
              (newline n))
          ;; Some people get confused by the large gap.
          (newline (/ n 2))

          ;; Skip the [...] line (don't delete it).
          (forward-line 1)
          (newline (- n (/ n 2)))))
      (goto-char (point-min))
      (setq buffer-undo-list nil)
      (set-buffer-modified-p nil))))

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