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[Emacs-diffs] Changes to emacs/doc/emacs/maintaining.texi,v

From: Chong Yidong
Subject: [Emacs-diffs] Changes to emacs/doc/emacs/maintaining.texi,v
Date: Fri, 31 Oct 2008 22:00:17 +0000

CVSROOT:        /sources/emacs
Module name:    emacs
Changes by:     Chong Yidong <cyd>      08/10/31 22:00:16

Index: maintaining.texi
RCS file: /sources/emacs/emacs/doc/emacs/maintaining.texi,v
retrieving revision 1.8
retrieving revision 1.9
diff -u -b -r1.8 -r1.9
--- maintaining.texi    31 Oct 2008 15:46:52 -0000      1.8
+++ maintaining.texi    31 Oct 2008 22:00:16 -0000      1.9
@@ -6,12 +6,11 @@
 @chapter Maintaining Large Programs
   This chapter describes Emacs features for maintaining large
-programs.  The version control features (@pxref{Version Control}) are
-also particularly useful for this purpose.
+* Version Control::     Using version control systems.
 * Change Log::         Maintaining a change history for your program.
-* Format of ChangeLog:: What the change log file looks like.
 * Tags::               Go directly to any function in your program in one
                          command.  Tags remembers which file it is in.
@@ -19,6 +18,1350 @@
 @end ifnottex
 @end menu
address@hidden Version Control
address@hidden Version Control
address@hidden version control
+  A @dfn{version control system} is a package that can record multiple
+versions of a source file, storing information such as the creation
+time of each version, who created it, and a description of what was
+changed in that version.
+  The Emacs version control interface is called VC.  Its commands work
+with several different version control systems; currently, it supports
+GNU Arch, Bazaar, CVS, Git, Mercurial, Monotone, RCS, SCCS/CSSC, and
+Subversion.  Of these, the GNU project distributes CVS, GNU Arch, RCS,
+and Bazaar.
+  VC is enabled automatically whenever you visit a file that is
+governed by a version control system.  To disable VC entirely, set the
+customizable variable @code{vc-handled-backends} to @code{nil}
+(@pxref{Customizing VC,,,emacs-xtra, Specialized Emacs Features}).
address@hidden iftex
+(@pxref{Customizing VC}).
address@hidden ifnottex
+* Introduction to VC::  How version control works in general.
+* VC Mode Line::        How the mode line shows version control status.
+* Basic VC Editing::    How to edit a file under version control.
+* Old Revisions::       Examining and comparing old versions.
+* Secondary VC Commands::    The commands used a little less frequently.
+* VC Directory Mode::   Listing files managed by version control.
+* Branches::            Multiple lines of development.
+* Remote Repositories:: Efficient access to remote CVS servers.
+* Revision Tags::       Symbolic names for revisions
+* Miscellaneous VC::    Various other commands and features of VC.
+* Customizing VC::      Variables that change VC's behavior.
address@hidden ifnottex
address@hidden menu
address@hidden Introduction to VC
address@hidden Introduction to Version Control
+  VC allows you to use a version control system from within Emacs,
+integrating the version control operations smoothly with editing.
+Though VC cannot completely bridge the gaps between version control
+systems with widely differing capabilities, it does provide a uniform
+interface to many version control operations. Regardless of which
+version control system is in use, you will be able to do basic
+operations in much the same way.
+  This section provides a general overview of version control, and
+describes the version control systems that VC supports.  You can skip
+this section if you are already familiar with the version control system
+you want to use.
+* Why Version Control?::    Understanding the problems it addresses
+* Version Control Systems:: Supported version control back-end systems.
+* VCS Concepts::            Words and concepts related to version control.
+* Types of Log File::       The VCS log in contrast to the ChangeLog.
address@hidden menu
address@hidden Why Version Control?
address@hidden Understanding the problems it addresses
+  Version control systems provide you with three important
address@hidden @bullet
address@hidden: the ability to back up to a previous state if you
+discover that some modification you did was a mistake or a bad idea.
address@hidden: the ability to have many people modifying the same
+collection of files knowing that conflicting modifications can be
+detected and resolved.
address@hidden: the ability to attach historical data to your data,
+such as explanatory comments about the intention behind each change to
+it.  Even for a programmer working solo, change histories are an
+important aid to memory; for a multi-person project, they are a
+vitally important form of communication among developers.
address@hidden itemize
address@hidden Version Control Systems
address@hidden Supported Version Control Systems
address@hidden back end (version control)
+  VC currently works with many different version control systems or
address@hidden ends}:
address@hidden @bullet
address@hidden SCCS
+SCCS was the first version control system ever built, and was long ago
+superseded by more advanced ones.  VC compensates for certain features
+missing in SCCS (e.g., tag names for releases) by implementing them
+itself.  Other VC features, such as multiple branches, are simply
+unavailable.  Since SCCS is non-free, we recommend avoiding it.
address@hidden CSSC
+CSSC is a free replacement for SCCS.  You should use CSSC only if, for
+some reason, you cannot use a more recent and better-designed version
+control system.
address@hidden RCS
+RCS is the free version control system around which VC was initially
+built.  Almost everything you can do with RCS can be done through VC.
+However, you cannot use RCS over the network, and it only works at the
+level of individual files rather than projects.
address@hidden CVS
+CVS is the free version control system that was, until recently (circa
+2008), used by the majority of free software projects.  Nowadays, it
+is slowly being superseded by newer systems.  CVS allows concurrent
+multi-user development either locally or over the network.  It lacks
+support for atomic commits or file moving/renaming.  VC supports all
+basic editing operations under CVS.  For some less common tasks, you
+still need to call CVS from the command line.  Note also that before
+using CVS you must set up a repository, which is a subject too complex
+to treat here.
address@hidden SVN
address@hidden Subversion
+Subversion (SVN) is a free version control system designed to be
+similar to CVS but without its problems.  It supports atomic commits
+of filesets, and versioning of directories, symbolic links, meta-data,
+renames, copies, and deletes.
address@hidden GNU Arch
address@hidden Arch
+GNU Arch is a version control system designed for distributed work.
+It differs in many ways from older systems like CVS and RCS.  It
+provides different methods for interoperating between users, support
+for offline operations, and good branching and merging features.  It
+also supports atomic commits of filesets and file moving/renaming.  VC
+does not support all operations provided by GNU Arch, so you must
+sometimes invoke it from the command line.
address@hidden git
+Git is a distributed version control system invented by Linus Torvalds to 
+Linux kernel development.  It supports atomic commits of filesets and
+file moving/renaming.  One significant feature of git is that it
+largely abolishes the notion of a single centralized repository;
+instead, each working copy of a git project is its own repository and
+coordination is done through repository-sync operations.  VC supports
+most git operations, with the exception of news merges and repository
+syncing; these must be done from the command line.
address@hidden hg
address@hidden Mercurial
+Mercurial (hg) is a distributed version control system broadly
+resembling GNU Arch and git, with atomic fileset commits and file
+moving/renaming.  Like git, it is fully decentralized.  VC supports
+most Mercurial commands, with the exception of repository sync
+operations; this needs to be done from the command line.
address@hidden bzr
address@hidden Bazaar
+Bazaar (bzr) is a distributed version control system that supports both
+repository-based and distributed versioning, with atomic fileset
+commits and file moving/renaming.  VC supports most basic editing
+operations under Bazaar.
address@hidden itemize
+  Previous versions of VC supported a version control system known as
+Meta-CVS.  This support has been dropped because of limited interest
+from users and developers.
address@hidden VCS Concepts
address@hidden Concepts of Version Control
address@hidden repository
address@hidden registered file
+   When a file is under version control, we say that it is
address@hidden in the version control system.  The system has a
address@hidden which stores both the file's present state and its
+change history---enough to reconstruct the current version or any
+earlier version.  The repository also contains other information, such
+as @dfn{log entries} that describe the changes made to each file.
address@hidden work file
address@hidden checking out files
+  A file @dfn{checked out} of a repository is called the @dfn{work
+file}.  You edit the work file and make changes in it, as you would
+with an ordinary file.  After you are done with a set of changes, you
address@hidden in} or @dfn{commit} the file; this records the changes in
+the repository, along with a log entry for those changes.
address@hidden revision
address@hidden revision ID
+  A copy of a file stored in a repository is called a @dfn{revision}.
+The history of a file is a sequence of revisions.  Each revisions is
+named by a @dfn{revision ID}.  The format of the revision ID depends
+on the version control system; in the simplest case, it is just an
+  To go beyond these basic concepts, you will need to understand three
+ways in which version control systems can differ from each other.
+They can be locking-based or merging-based; they can be file-based or
+changeset-based; and they can be centralized or decentralized.  VC
+handles all these choices, but they lead to differing behaviors which
+you will need to understand as you use it.
address@hidden locking versus merging
+  A version control system typically has some mechanism to coordinate
+between users who want to change the same file.  There are two ways to
+do this: merging and locking.
+  In a version control system that uses merging, each user may check
+out and modify a work file at any time.  The system lets you
address@hidden your work file, which may contain changes that have not
+been checked in, with the latest changes that others have checked into
+the repository.
+  Older version control systems use a @dfn{locking} scheme instead.
+Here, work files are normally read-only.  To edit a file, you ask the
+version control system to make it writable for you by @dfn{locking}
+it; only one user can lock a given file at any given time.  This
+procedure is analogous to, but different from, the locking that Emacs
+uses to detect simultaneous editing of ordinary files
+(@pxref{Interlocking}).  When you check in your changes, that unlocks
+the file, and the work file becomes read-only again.  Other users may
+then lock the file to make their own changes.
+  Both locking and merging systems can have problems when multiple
+users try to modify the same file at the same time.  Locking systems
+have @dfn{lock conflicts}; a user may try to check a file out and be
+unable to because it is locked.  In merging systems, @dfn{merge
+conflicts} happen when you check in a change to a file that conflicts
+with a change checked in by someone else after your checkout.  Both
+kinds of conflict have to be resolved by human judgment and
+  SCCS always uses locking.  RCS is lock-based by default but can be
+told to operate in a merging style.  CVS and Subversion are
+merge-based by default but can be told to operate in a locking mode.
+Distributed version control systems, such as GNU Arch, git, and
+Mercurial, are exclusively merging-based.  Experience has shown that
+merging is superior to locking, both in convenience to developers and
+in minimizing the number and severity of conflicts that actually
+occur.  Sometimes, however, newer version control systems may have
+locks retrofitted onto them for reasons having nothing to do with
address@hidden the control-freak instincts of managers.}.
+  VC mode supports both locking and merging version control and tries
+to hide the differences between them as much as possible.
address@hidden files versus changesets.
+  On SCCS, RCS, CVS, and other early version control systems, version
+control operations are @dfn{file-based}: each file has its own comment
+and revision history separate from that of all other files in the
+system.  Later systems, beginning with Subversion, are
address@hidden: a checkin may include changes to several files,
+and the entire set of changes is treated as a unit by the system.  Any
+comment associated with the change does not belong to a single file,
+but to the changeset itself.
+  Changeset-based version control is more flexible and powerful than
+file-based version control; usually, when a change to multiple files
+has to be reversed, it's good to be able to easily identify and remove
+all of it.  But it took some years for designers to figure that out,
+and while file-based systems are passing out of use, there are lots of
+legacy repositories still to be dealt with as of this writing (2008).
+  Prior to Emacs 23, VC supported only file-based systems, leading to
+unhappy results when it was used to drive changeset-based
+systems---the Subversion support, for example, used to break up
+changesets into multiple per-file commits.  This has been fixed, but
+it has left a mark in VC's terminology.  The terms ``checkin'' and
+``checkout'' are associated with file-based and locking-based systems
+and a bit archaic; nowadays those operations are usually called
+``commit'' and ``update''.
address@hidden centralized vs. decentralized version control
+  Early version control systems were designed around a
address@hidden model in which each project has only one repository
+used by all developers.  SCCS, RCS, CVS, and Subversion share this
+kind of model.  One problem with this approach is that a single
+repository is a single point of failure---if the repository server is
+down, all work stops.
+  Newer version control systems like GNU Arch, git, Mercurial, and
+Bazaar are @dfn{decentralized}.  A project may have several different
+repositories, and these systems support a sort of super-merge between
+repositories that tries to reconcile their change histories.  At the
+limit, each developer has his/her own repository, and repository
+merges replace checkin/commit operations.
+  VC's job is to help you manage the traffic between your personal
+workfiles and a repository.  Whether that repository is a single
+master or one of a network of peer repositories is not something VC
+has to care about.  Thus, the difference between a centralized and a
+decentralized version control system is invisible to VC mode.
address@hidden Types of Log File
address@hidden Types of Log File
address@hidden types of log file
address@hidden log File, types of
address@hidden version control log
+  Projects that use a version control system can have two types of log
+for changes.  One is the log maintained by the version control system:
+each time you check in a change, you fill out a @dfn{log entry} for
+the change (@pxref{Log Buffer}).  This is called the @dfn{version
+control log}.
+  The other kind of log is the file @file{ChangeLog} (@pxref{Change
+Log}).  It provides a chronological record of all changes to a large
+portion of a program---typically one directory and its subdirectories.
+A small program would use one @file{ChangeLog} file; a large program
+may have a @file{ChangeLog} file in each major directory.
address@hidden Log}.
+  Actually, the fact that both kinds of log exist is partly a legacy
+from file-based version control.  Changelogs are a GNU convention,
+later more widely adopted, that help developers to get a
+changeset-based view of a project even when its version control system
+has that information split up in multiple file-based logs.
+  Changeset-based version systems, on the other hand, often maintain a
+changeset-based modification log for the entire system that makes
+ChangeLogs somewhat redundant.  One advantage that ChangeLogs retain
+is that it is sometimes useful to be able to view the transaction
+history of a single directory separately from those of other
+  A project maintained with version control can use just the version
+control log, or it can use both kinds of logs.  It can handle some
+files one way and some files the other way.  Each project has its
+policy, which you should follow.
+  When the policy is to use both, you typically want to write an entry
+for each change just once, then put it into both logs.  You can write
+the entry in @file{ChangeLog}, then copy it to the log buffer with
address@hidden C-a} when checking in the change (@pxref{Log Buffer}).  Or
+you can write the entry in the log buffer while checking in the
+change, and later use the @kbd{C-x v a} command to copy it to
+(@pxref{Change Logs and VC,,,emacs-xtra, Specialized Emacs Features}).
address@hidden iftex
+(@pxref{Change Logs and VC}).
address@hidden ifnottex
address@hidden VC Mode Line
address@hidden Version Control and the Mode Line
+  When you visit a file that is under version control, Emacs indicates
+this on the mode line.  For example, @samp{RCS-1.3} says that RCS is
+used for that file, and the current version is 1.3.
+  The character between the back-end name and the revision ID
+indicates the version control status of the file.  @samp{-} means that
+the work file is not locked (if locking is in use), or not modified (if
+locking is not in use).  @samp{:} indicates that the file is locked, or
+that it is modified.  If the file is locked by some other user (for
+instance, @samp{jim}), that is displayed as @samp{RCS:jim:1.3}.
+  On a graphical display, you can move the mouse over this mode line
+indicator to pop up a ``tool-tip'', which displays a more verbose
+description of the version control status.  Pressing @kbd{Mouse-1}
+over the indicator pops up a menu of VC commands.  This menu is
+identical to the @samp{Version Control} menu item, which can be found
+in the @samp{Tools} menu on the menu bar.
address@hidden auto-revert-check-vc-info
+  When Auto Revert mode (@pxref{Reverting}) reverts a buffer that is
+under version control, it updates the version control information in
+the mode line.  However, Auto Revert mode may not properly update this
+information if the version control status changes without changes to
+the work file, from outside the current Emacs session.  If you set
address@hidden to @code{t}, Auto Revert mode updates
+the version control status information every
address@hidden seconds, even if the work file itself is
+unchanged.  The resulting CPU usage depends on the version control
+system, but is usually not excessive.
address@hidden Basic VC Editing
address@hidden Basic Editing under Version Control
address@hidden filesets
+   Most VC commands operate on @dfn{VC filesets}.  A VC fileset is a
+group of one or more files that are treated as a unit, for the
+purposes of version control.
+   If you are visiting a version-controlled file in the current
+buffer, the VC fileset is simply that one file.  If you are visiting a
+VC directory buffer, and some files in it are marked, the VC fileset
+consists of the marked files (@pxref{VC Directory Mode}).
+  The principal VC command is an all-purpose command, @kbd{C-x v v}
+(@code{vc-next-action}), that performs either locking, merging or a
+check-in on the current VC fileset, depending on the situation.  You
+can call @kbd{C-x v v} from a version-controlled file, or from the VC
+Directory buffer.
address@hidden @kbd
address@hidden C-x v v
+Perform the next logical version control operation on the VC fileset.
address@hidden table
address@hidden vc-next-action
address@hidden C-x v v
+  The precise action of @kbd{C-x v v} depends on the state of the VC
+fileset, and whether the version control system uses locking or
+merging.  This is described in detail in the subsequent sections.
+  VC filesets are the way that VC mode bridges the gap between
+file-based and changeset-based version control systems.  They are,
+essentially, a way to pass multiple file arguments as a group to
+version control commands.  For example, on Subversion, a checkin with
+a multi-file VC fileset becomes a joint commit, as though you had
+typed @command{svn commit} with those file arguments at the shell
+command line.  All files in a VC fileset must be under the same
+version control system; if they are not, Emacs signals an error when
+you attempt to execute a command on the fileset.
+  If you are accustomed to previous versions of VC, most of the
+changes to VC in Emacs 23 are found in VC directory mode (@pxref{VC
+Directory Mode}).  When multiple files are marked in the VC directory
+buffer, they are treated as a VC fileset; typing @kbd{C-x v v} in the
+VC directory buffer passes them to the version control backends as a
+single unit.  Other commands in VC directory mode now act on the VC
+fileset, rather than the file on the current line.  These changes
+allow VC to interoperate correctly with changeset-based version
+control systems.
+  VC filesets are distinct from the ``named filesets'' used for
+viewing and visiting files in functional groups (@pxref{Filesets}).
+Unlike named filesets, VC filesets are not named and don't persist
+across sessions.
+* VC With A Merging VCS::  Without locking: default mode for CVS.
+* VC With A Locking VCS::  RCS in its default mode, SCCS, and optionally CVS.
+* Advanced C-x v v::       Advanced features available with a prefix argument.
+* Log Buffer::             Features available in log entry buffers.
address@hidden menu
address@hidden VC With A Merging VCS
address@hidden Basic Version Control with Merging
+  When your version control system is merging-based (the default for
+CVS and all newer version control systems), work files are always
+writable; you need not do anything special to begin editing a file.
+The status indicator on the mode line is @samp{-} if the file is
+unmodified; it flips to @samp{:} as soon as you save any changes
+(@pxref{VC Mode Line}).
+  Here is what @kbd{C-x v v} does when using a merging-based system:
address@hidden @bullet
+If the work file is the same as in the repository, it does nothing.
+If you have not changed the work file, but some other user has checked
+in changes to the repository, @kbd{C-x v v} merges those changes into
+the work file.
+If you have made modifications to the work file, @kbd{C-x v v}
+attempts to check in your changes.  To do this, Emacs first reads the
+log entry for the new revision (@pxref{Log Buffer}).  If some other
+user has checked in changes to the repository since you last checked
+it out, the checkin fails.  In that case, type @kbd{C-x v v} again to
+merge those changes into your own work file; this puts the work file
+into a ``conflicted'' state.  Type @kbd{C-x v v} to clear the
+``conflicted'' state; VC then regards the file as up-to-date and
+modified, and you can try to check it in again.
+To pick up any recent changes from the repository @emph{without}
+trying to commit your own changes, type @kbd{C-x v m @key{RET}}.
address@hidden itemize
+  These rules also apply when you use RCS in its ``non-locking'' mode,
+except that changes will not be automatically merged from the
+repository.  Nothing informs you if another user has checked in
+changes in the same file since you began editing it; when you check in
+your revision, his changes are removed (however, they remain in the
+repository and are thus not irrevocably lost).  Therefore, you must
+verify that the current revision is unchanged before checking in your
+changes.  In addition, locking is possible with RCS even in this mode:
address@hidden v v} with an unmodified file locks the file, just as it does
+with RCS in its normal locking mode (@pxref{VC With A Locking VCS}).
address@hidden VC With A Locking VCS
address@hidden Basic Version Control with Locking
+  Under a locking-based version control system (such as SCCS, and RCS
+in its default mode), @kbd{C-x v v} does the following:
+ @itemize @bullet
+If the file is not locked, @kbd{C-x v v} locks it, and makes it
+writable so that you can change it.
+If the file is locked by you, and contains changes, @kbd{C-x v v}
+checks in the changes.  In order to do this, it first reads the log
+entry for the new revision.  @xref{Log Buffer}.
+If the file is locked by you, but you have not changed it since you
+locked it, @kbd{C-x v v} releases the lock and makes the file
+read-only again.
+If the file is locked by some other user, @kbd{C-x v v} asks you whether
+you want to ``steal the lock'' from that user.  If you say yes, the file
+becomes locked by you, but a message is sent to the person who had
+formerly locked the file, to inform him of what has happened.
address@hidden itemize
+  These rules also apply when you use CVS in locking mode, except
+that there is no such thing as stealing a lock.
address@hidden Advanced C-x v v
address@hidden Advanced Control in @kbd{C-x v v}
address@hidden revision ID to check in/out
+  When you give a prefix argument to @code{vc-next-action} (@kbd{C-u
+C-x v v}), it still performs the next logical version control
+operation, but accepts additional arguments to specify precisely how
+to do the operation.
address@hidden @bullet
+If the file is modified (or locked), you can specify the revision ID
+to use for the new version that you check in.  This is one way
+to create a new branch (@pxref{Branches}).
+If the file is not modified (and unlocked), you can specify the
+revision to select; this lets you start working from an older
+revision, or on another branch.  If you do not enter any revision,
+that takes you to the highest (``head'') revision on the current
+branch; therefore @kbd{C-u C-x v v @key{RET}} is a convenient way to
+get the latest version of a file from the repository.
address@hidden specific version control system
+Instead of the revision ID, you can also specify the name of a
+version control system.  This is useful when one file is being managed
+with two version control systems at the same time
+(@pxref{Local Version Control,,,emacs-xtra, Specialized Emacs
address@hidden iftex
+(@pxref{Local Version Control}).
address@hidden ifnottex
address@hidden itemize
address@hidden Log Buffer
address@hidden Features of the Log Entry Buffer
+  When you check in changes, Emacs pops up a buffer called
address@hidden for you to enter a log entry.
+  After you have finished editing the log message, type @kbd{C-c C-c}
+to exit the buffer and commit the change.
address@hidden log-edit-show-files
address@hidden log-edit-show-diff
+  In the @samp{*VC-Log*} buffer, typing @kbd{C-c C-f}
+(@code{log-edit-show-files}) displays a list of files in the VC
+fileset you are committing.  If you called @kbd{C-x v v} directly from
+a work file, the VC fileset consists of that single file, so this
+command is not very useful.  If you called @kbd{C-x v v} from a VC
+directory buffer, the VC fileset may consist of multiple files
+(@pxref{VC Directory Mode}).
address@hidden log-edit-insert-changelog
+  Type @kbd{C-c C-d} (@code{log-edit-show-diff}) to show a ``diff'' of
+the changes you have made (i.e., the differences between the work file
+and the repository revision from which you started editing the file).
+The diff is displayed in a special buffer in another window.
address@hidden Files}.
+  If you have written an entry in the @file{ChangeLog} (@pxref{Change
+Log}), type @kbd{C-c C-a} (@code{log-edit-insert-changelog}) to pull
+it into the @samp{*VC-Log*} buffer.  If the topmost item in the
address@hidden was made under your user name on the current date,
+this command searches that item for entries that match the file(s) to
+be committed; if found, these entries are inserted.
address@hidden Logs and VC,,,emacs-xtra, Specialized Emacs Features},
address@hidden iftex
address@hidden Logs and VC},
address@hidden ifnottex
+for the opposite way of working---generating ChangeLog entries from
+the revision control log.
+  To abort a check-in, just @strong{don't} type @kbd{C-c C-c} in that
+buffer.  You can switch buffers and do other editing.  As long as you
+don't try to check in another file, the entry you were editing remains
+in the @samp{*VC-Log*} buffer, and you can go back to that buffer at
+any time to complete the check-in.
+  If you change several source files for the same reason, it is often
+convenient to specify the same log entry for many of the files.  (This
+is the normal way to do things on a changeset-oriented system, where
+comments are attached to changesets rather than the history of
+individual files.)  The most convenient way to do this is to mark all
+the files in VC Directory Mode and check in from there; the log buffer
+will carry the fileset information with it and do a group commit when
+you type @kbd{C-c C-c}.
+  You can also browse the history of previous log entries to duplicate
+a checkin comment. This can be useful when you want several files to
+have checkin comments that vary only slightly from each other. The
+commands @kbd{M-n}, @kbd{M-p}, @kbd{M-s} and @kbd{M-r} for doing this
+work just like the minibuffer history commands (except that these
+versions are used outside the minibuffer).
address@hidden vc-log-mode-hook
+  Each time you check in a change, the log entry buffer is put into VC
+Log Edit mode, which involves running two hooks: @code{text-mode-hook}
+and @code{vc-log-mode-hook}.  @xref{Hooks}.
address@hidden Old Revisions
address@hidden Examining And Comparing Old Revisions
+  One of the convenient features of version control is the ability
+to examine any revision of a file, or compare two revisions.
address@hidden @kbd
address@hidden C-x v ~ @var{revision} @key{RET}
+Examine revision @var{revision} of the visited file, in a buffer of its
address@hidden C-x v =
+Compare the buffer contents associated with the current
+fileset with the working revision(s) from which you started editing.
address@hidden C-u C-x v = @key{RET} @var{oldvers} @key{RET} @var{newvers} 
+Compare the specified two repository revisions of the current fileset.
address@hidden C-x v g
+Display an annotated version of the file: for each line, show the
+latest revision in which it was modified.
address@hidden table
address@hidden vc-revision-other-window
address@hidden C-x v ~
+  To examine an old revision, visit the work file and type @kbd{C-x v
+~ @var{revision} @key{RET}} (@code{vc-revision-other-window}).  Here,
address@hidden is either the desired revision ID (@pxref{VCS
+Concepts}), or the name of a tag or branch
+(@pxref{Tags,,,emacs-xtra, Specialized Emacs Features}).
address@hidden iftex
address@hidden ifnottex
+This command puts the text of the old revision in a file named
address@hidden@address@hidden, and visits it in its own
+buffer in a separate window.
address@hidden vc-diff
address@hidden C-x v =
+  @kbd{C-x v =} (@code{vc-diff}) compares the current buffer contents
+of each file in the current VC fileset (saving them if necessary) with
+the repository revision from which you started editing.  Note that the
+latter may or may not be the latest revision of the file(s).  The diff
+is displayed in a special buffer in another window.  @xref{Comparing
address@hidden vc-diff
address@hidden C-u C-x v =
+  To compare two arbitrary revisions of the current VC fileset, call
address@hidden with a prefix argument: @kbd{C-u C-x v =}.  This
+prompts for two revision IDs, using the minibuffer, and displays the
+diff in a special buffer in another window.  Instead of providing a
+revision ID, you can give an empty input, which specifies the current
+contents of the work file; or a tag or branch name
+(@pxref{Tags,,,emacs-xtra, Specialized Emacs Features}).
address@hidden iftex
address@hidden ifnottex
+If your version control system is file-based (e.g. CVS) rather than
+changeset-based (Subversion, GNU Arch, git, Mercurial), supplying a
+revision ID for a multi-file fileset (as opposed to a symbolic tag
+name) is unlikely to return diffs that are connected in any meaningful
+  If you invoke @kbd{C-x v =} or @kbd{C-u C-x v =} from a buffer that
+is neither visiting a version-controlled file nor a VC directory
+buffer, these commands generate a diff of all registered files in the
+current directory and its subdirectories.
address@hidden vc-diff-switches
address@hidden vc-rcs-diff-switches
+  @kbd{C-x v =} works by running a variant of the @code{diff} utility
+designed to work with the version control system in use.  When you
+invoke @code{diff} this way, in addition to the options specified by
address@hidden (@pxref{Comparing Files}), it receives those
+specified by @code{vc-diff-switches}, plus those specified for the
+specific back end by @address@hidden  For
+instance, when the version control back end is CVS, @code{diff} uses
+the options in @code{vc-cvs-diff-switches}.  The
address@hidden@dots{}diff-switches} variables are @code{nil} by default.
+  The buffer produced by @kbd{C-x v =} supports the commands of
+Compilation mode (@pxref{Compilation Mode}), such as @kbd{C-x `} and
address@hidden C-c}, in both the ``old'' and ``new'' text, and they always
+find the corresponding locations in the current work file.  (Older
+revisions are not, in general, present as files on your disk.)
address@hidden vc-annotate
address@hidden C-x v g
+  For some back ends, you can display the file @dfn{annotated} with
+per-line revision information, by typing @kbd{C-x v g}
+(@code{vc-annotate}).  This creates a new buffer (the ``annotate
+buffer'') displaying the file's text, with each part colored to show
+how old it is.  Text colored red is new, blue means old, and
+intermediate colors indicate intermediate ages.  By default, the color
+is scaled over the full range of ages, such that the oldest changes
+are blue, and the newest changes are red.
+  When you give a prefix argument to this command, Emacs reads two
+arguments using the minibuffer: the ID of which revision to display and
+annotate (instead of the current file contents), and the time span in
+days the color range should cover.
+  From the annotate buffer, these and other color scaling options are
+available from the @samp{VC-Annotate} menu.  In this buffer, you can
+also use the following keys to browse the annotations of past revisions,
+view diffs, or view log entries:
address@hidden @kbd
address@hidden p
+Annotate the previous revision, that is to say, the revision before
+the one currently annotated.  A numeric prefix argument is a repeat
+count, so @kbd{C-u 10 p} would take you back 10 revisions.
address@hidden n
+Annotate the next revision---the one after the revision currently
+annotated.  A numeric prefix argument is a repeat count.
address@hidden j
+Annotate the revision indicated by the current line.
address@hidden a
+Annotate the revision before the one indicated by the current line.
+This is useful to see the state the file was in before the change on
+the current line was made.
address@hidden f
+Show in a buffer the file revision indicated by the current line.
address@hidden d
+Display the diff between the current line's revision and the previous
+revision.  This is useful to see what the current line's revision
+actually changed in the file.
address@hidden D
+Display the diff between the current line's revision and the previous
+revision for all files in the changeset (for VC systems that support
+changesets).  This is useful to see what the current line's revision
+actually changed in the tree.
address@hidden l
+Show the log of the current line's revision.  This is useful to see
+the author's description of the changes in the revision on the current
address@hidden w
+Annotate the working revision--the one you are editing.  If you used
address@hidden and @kbd{n} to browse to other revisions, use this key to
+return to your working revision.
address@hidden v
+Toggle the annotation visibility.  This is useful for looking just at
+the file contents without distraction from the annotations.
address@hidden table
address@hidden Secondary VC Commands
address@hidden The Secondary Commands of VC
+  This section explains the secondary commands of VC.
+* Registering::         Putting a file under version control.
+* VC Status::           Viewing the VC status of files.
+* VC Undo::             Canceling changes before or after check-in.
address@hidden menu
address@hidden Registering
address@hidden Registering a File for Version Control
address@hidden C-x v i
address@hidden vc-register
+  You can put any file under version control by simply visiting it, and
+then typing @address@hidden v i}} (@code{vc-register}).
address@hidden @kbd
address@hidden C-x v i
+Register the visited file for version control.
address@hidden table
+  To register the file, Emacs must choose which version control system
+to use for it.  If the file's directory already contains files
+registered in a version control system, Emacs uses that system.  If
+there is more than one system in use for a directory, Emacs uses the
+one that appears first in @code{vc-handled-backends}
+(@pxref{Customizing VC,,,emacs-xtra, Specialized Emacs Features}).
address@hidden iftex
+(@pxref{Customizing VC}).
address@hidden ifnottex
+On the other hand, if there are no files already registered, Emacs uses
+the first system from @code{vc-handled-backends} that could register
+the file (for example, you cannot register a file under CVS if its
+directory is not already part of a CVS tree); with the default value
+of @code{vc-handled-backends}, this means that Emacs uses RCS in this
+  If locking is in use, @kbd{C-x v i} leaves the file unlocked and
+read-only.  Type @kbd{C-x v v} if you wish to start editing it.  After
+registering a file with CVS, you must subsequently commit the initial
+revision by typing @kbd{C-x v v}.  Until you do that, the revision ID
+appears as @samp{@@@@} in the mode line.
address@hidden vc-default-init-revision
address@hidden initial revision ID to register
+  The default initial revision ID for a newly registered file
+varies by what VCS you are using; normally it will be 1.1 on VCSes
+that use dot-pair revision IDs and 1 on VCSes that use monotonic IDs.
+You can specify a different default by setting the variable
address@hidden, or you can give @kbd{C-x v i} a
+numeric argument; then it reads the initial revision ID for this
+particular file using the minibuffer.
address@hidden vc-initial-comment
+  If @code{vc-initial-comment} is address@hidden, @kbd{C-x v i} reads an
+initial comment to describe the purpose of this source file.  Reading
+the initial comment works like reading a log entry (@pxref{Log Buffer}).
address@hidden VC Status
address@hidden VC Status Commands
address@hidden @kbd
address@hidden C-x v l
+Display revision control state and change history.
address@hidden table
address@hidden C-x v l
address@hidden vc-print-log
+  To view the detailed revision control status and history of a file,
+type @kbd{C-x v l} (@code{vc-print-log}).  This pops up a special
+buffer named @samp{*vc-change-log*}, in a new window, that displays
+the history of changes to the current file, including the text of the
+log entries.  The point is centered at the revision of the file that
+is currently being visited.
+  In the @samp{*vc-change-log*} buffer, you can use the following keys
+to move between the logs of revisions and of files, to view past
+revisions, to modify change comments, to view annotations and to view
address@hidden @kbd
address@hidden p
+Move to the previous revision-item in the buffer.  (Revision entries in the log
+buffer are usually in reverse-chronological order, so the previous
+revision-item usually corresponds to a newer revision.)  A numeric
+prefix argument is a repeat count.
address@hidden n
+Move to the next revision-item (which most often corresponds to the
+previous revision of the file).  A numeric prefix argument is a repeat
address@hidden P
+Move to the log of the previous file, when the logs of multiple files
+are in the log buffer (@pxref{VC Directory Mode}).  Otherwise, just
+move to the beginning of the log.  A numeric prefix argument is a
+repeat count, so @kbd{C-u 10 P} would move backward 10 files.
address@hidden N
+Move to the log of the next file, when the logs of multiple files are
+in the log buffer (@pxref{VC Directory Mode}).  It also takes a
+numeric prefix argument as a repeat count.
address@hidden a
+Annotate the revision indicated by the current line.
address@hidden e
+Modify the change comment displayed at point.  Note that not all VC
+systems support modifying change comments.
address@hidden f
+Visit the revision indicated at the current line, like typing @kbd{C-x
+v ~} and specifying this revision's ID (@pxref{Old Revisions}).
address@hidden d
+Display the diff (@pxref{Comparing Files}) between the revision
+indicated at the current line and the next earlier revision.  This is
+useful to see what actually changed in the file when the revision
+indicated on the current line was committed.
address@hidden D
+Display the changeset diff (@pxref{Comparing Files}) between the
+revision indicated at the current line and the next earlier revision.
+This is useful to see all the changes to all files that the revision
+indicated on the current line did when it was committed.
address@hidden table
address@hidden VC Undo
address@hidden Undoing Version Control Actions
address@hidden @kbd
address@hidden C-x v u
+Revert the buffer and the file to the working revision from which you started
+editing the file.
address@hidden C-x v c
+Remove the last-entered change from the master for the visited file.
+This undoes your last check-in.
address@hidden table
address@hidden C-x v u
address@hidden vc-revert-buffer
+  If you want to discard your current set of changes and revert to the
+working revision from which you started editing the file, use @kbd{C-x
+v u} (@code{vc-revert-buffer}).  If the version control system is
+locking-based, this leaves the file unlocked, and you must lock it
+again before making new changes.  @kbd{C-x v u} requires confirmation,
+unless it sees that you haven't made any changes with respect to the
+master copy of the working revision.
+  @kbd{C-x v u} is also the command to unlock a file if you lock it and
+then decide not to change it.
address@hidden C-x v c
address@hidden vc-rollback
+  To cancel a change that you already checked in, use @kbd{C-x v c}
+(@code{vc-rollback}).  This command discards all record of the most
+recent checked-in revision, but only if your work file corresponds to
+that revision---you cannot use @kbd{C-x v c} to cancel a revision that
+is not the latest on its branch.  Note that many version control
+systems do not support rollback at all; this command is something of a
+historical relic.
address@hidden VC Directory Mode
address@hidden VC Directory Mode
address@hidden C-x v d
address@hidden vc-dir
+  When you are working on a large program, it is often useful to find
+out which files have changed within an entire directory tree, or to
+view the status of all files under version control at once, and to
+perform version control operations on collections of files.  You can
+use the command @kbd{C-x v d} (@code{vc-dir}) to make a directory
+listing that includes only files relevant for version control.  This
+creates a @dfn{VC Directory buffer} and displays it in a separate
address@hidden PCL-CVS
address@hidden cvs
address@hidden CVS directory mode
+  The VC Directory buffer described here works with all the version
+control systems that VC supports.  Another more powerful facility,
+designed specifically for CVS, is called PCL-CVS.  @xref{Top, , About
+PCL-CVS, pcl-cvs, PCL-CVS --- The Emacs Front-End to CVS}.
+  The VC Directory buffer contains a list of version-controlled files
+in the current directory and its subdirectories.  Files which are
+up-to-date (have no local differences from the repository copy) are
+omitted; if all files in a directory are up-to-date, the directory is
+omitted as well.  (However, the directory in which @code{vc-dir} was
+run will always be shown as @file{./}.)  There is an exception to this
+rule: if VC mode detects that a file has changed to an up-to-date
+state since you last looked at it, that file and its state are shown.
+  If a directory uses more that one version control system, you can
+select which system to use for the @code{vc-dir} command by invoking
address@hidden with a prefix argument: @kbd{C-u C-x v d}.
+  The line for an individual file shows the version control state of
+the file.  Under RCS and SCCS, the name of the user locking the file
+is shown; under CVS, an abbreviated version of the @samp{cvs status}
+output is used.  Here is an example using CVS:
+                       ./
+    modified           file1.c
+    needs-update       file2.c
+    needs-merge        file3.c
address@hidden group
address@hidden smallexample
+In this example, @samp{file1.c} is modified with respect to the
+repository, and @samp{file2.c} is not.  @samp{file3.c} is modified,
+but other changes have also been checked in to the repository---you
+need to merge them with the work file before you can check it in.
address@hidden vc-stay-local
address@hidden vc-cvs-stay-local
+  In the above, if the repository were on a remote machine, VC only
+contacts it when the variable @code{vc-stay-local} (or
address@hidden) is nil (@pxref{CVS Options}).  This is
+because access to the repository may be slow, or you may be working
+offline and not have access to the repository at all.  As a
+consequence, VC would not be able to tell you that @samp{file3.c} is
+in the ``merge'' state; you would learn that only when you try to
+check-in your modified copy of the file, or use a command such as
address@hidden v m}.
+  In practice, this is not a problem because CVS handles this case
+consistently whenever it arises.  In VC, you'll simply get prompted to
+merge the remote changes into your work file first.  The benefits of
+less network communication usually outweigh the disadvantage of not
+seeing remote changes immediately.
address@hidden vc-directory-exclusion-list
+  When a VC directory displays subdirectories it omits some that
+should never contain any files under version control.  By default,
+this includes Version Control subdirectories such as @samp{RCS} and
address@hidden; you can customize this by setting the variable
+* VC Directory Commands:: Commands to use in a VC directory buffer.
address@hidden menu
address@hidden VC Directory Commands
address@hidden VC Directory Commands
+  VC Directory mode has a full set of navigation and marking commands
+for picking out filesets.  Some of these are also available in a
+context menu invoked by the @kbd{mouse-2} button.
+  Up- and down-arrow keys move in the buffer; @kbd{n} and @kbd{p}  also
+move vertically as in other list-browsing modes.  @key{SPC} and
address@hidden behave like down-arrow, and @key{BackTab} behaves like
+  Both @kbd{C-m} and @kbd{f} visit the file on the current
+line.  @kbd{o} visits that file in another window.  @kbd{q} dismisses
+the directory buffer.
+  @kbd{x} toggles hiding of up-to-date files.
+  @kbd{m} marks the file or directory on the current line.  If the
+region is active, @kbd{m} marks all the files in the region.  There
+are some restrictions when marking: a file cannot be marked if any of
+its parent directories are marked, and a directory cannot be marked if
+any files in it or in its child directories are marked.
+  @kbd{M} marks all the files with the same VC state as the current
+file if the cursor is on a file.  If the cursor is on a directory, it
+marks all child files.  With a prefix argument: marks all files and
+  @kbd{u} unmarks the file or directory on the current line.  If the
+region is active, it unmarks all the files in the region.
+  @kbd{U} marks all the files with the same VC state as the current file
+if the cursor is on a file.  If the cursor is on a directory, it
+unmarks all child files.  With a prefix argument: unmarks all marked
+files and directories.
+  It is possible to do search, search and replace, incremental search,
+and incremental regexp search on multiple files.  These commands will
+work on all the marked files or the current file if nothing is marked.
+If a directory is marked, the files in that directory shown in the VC
+directory buffer will be used.
+  @kbd{S} searches the marked files.
+  @kbd{Q} does a query replace on the marked files.
+  @kbd{M-s a C-s} does an incremental search on the marked files.
+  @kbd{M-s a C-M-s} does an incremental search on the marked files.
+  Commands are also accessible from the VC-dir menu.  Note that some VC
+backends use the VC-dir menu to make available extra backend specific
+  Normal VC commands with the @kbd{C-x v} prefix work in VC directory
+buffers.  Some single-key shortcuts are available as well; @kbd{=},
address@hidden, @kbd{l}, @kbd{i}, and @kbd{v} behave as through prefixed with
address@hidden v}.
+  The command @kbd{C-x v v} (@code{vc-next-action}) operates on all the
+marked files, so that you can check in several files at once.
+If the underlying VC supports atomic commits of multiple-file
+changesets, @kbd{C-x v v} with a selected set of modified but not
+committed files will commit all of them at once as a single changeset.
+  When @kbd{C-x v v} (@code{vc-next-action}) operates on a set of files,
+it requires that all of those files must be either in the same state or
+in compatible states; otherwise it will throw an error (added,
+modified and removed states are considered compatible).  Note that this
+differs from the behavior of older versions of VC, which did not have
+fileset operations and simply did @code{vc-next-action} on each file
+  If any files are in a state that calls for commit, @kbd{C-x v v} reads a
+single log entry and uses it for the changeset as a whole.  If the
+underling VCS is file- rather than changeset-oriented, the log entry
+will be replicated into the history of each file.
address@hidden Branches
address@hidden Multiple Branches of a File
address@hidden branch (version control)
address@hidden trunk (version control)
+  One use of version control is to maintain multiple ``current''
+revisions of a file.  For example, you might have different revisions of a
+program in which you are gradually adding various unfinished new
+features.  Each such independent line of development is called a
address@hidden  VC allows you to create branches, switch between
+different branches, and merge changes from one branch to another.
+Please note, however, that branches are not supported for SCCS.
+  A file's main line of development is usually called the @dfn{trunk}.
+You can create multiple branches from the trunk.  How the difference
+between trunk and branch is made visible is dependent on whether the
+VCS uses dot-pair or monotonic version IDs.
+  In VCSes with dot-pair revision IDs, the revisions on the trunk are
+normally IDed 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, etc.  At any such revision, you can
+start an independent branch.  A branch starting at revision 1.2 would
+have revision ID, and consecutive revisions on this branch
+would have IDs,,, and so on.  If there is
+a second branch also starting at revision 1.2, it would consist of
+revisions,,, etc.
+   In VCSes with monotonic revision IDs, trunk revisions are IDed as
+1, 2, 3, etc.  A branch from (say) revision 2 might start with 2.1 and
+continue through 2.2, 2.3, etc.  But naming conventions for branches
+and subbranches vary widely on these systems, and some (like
+Mercurial) never depart from the monotonic integer sequence at all.
+Consult the documentation of the VCS you are using.
address@hidden head revision
+  If you omit the final component of a dot-pair revision ID, that is called a
address@hidden ID}.  It refers to the highest existing revision on that
+branch---the @dfn{head revision} of that branch.  The branches in the
+dot-pair example above have branch IDs 1.2.1 and 1.2.2.
+* Switching Branches::    How to get to another existing branch.
+* Creating Branches::     How to start a new branch.
+* Merging::               Transferring changes between branches.
+* Multi-User Branching::  Multiple users working at multiple branches
+                            in parallel.
address@hidden menu
address@hidden Switching Branches
address@hidden Switching between Branches
+  To switch between branches, type @kbd{C-u C-x v v} and specify the
+revision ID you want to select.  On a locking-based system, this
+version is then visited @emph{unlocked} (write-protected), so you can
+examine it before locking it.  Switching branches in this way is allowed
+only when the file is not locked.
+  On a VCS with dot-pair IDs, you can omit the minor part, thus giving
+only the branch ID; this takes you to the head version on the
+chosen branch.  If you only type @key{RET}, Emacs goes to the highest
+version on the trunk.
+  After you have switched to any branch (including the main branch), you
+stay on it for subsequent VC commands, until you explicitly select some
+other branch.
address@hidden Creating Branches
address@hidden Creating New Branches
+  To create a new branch from a head revision (one that is the latest in
+the branch that contains it), first select that revision if necessary,
+lock it with @kbd{C-x v v}, and make whatever changes you want.  Then,
+when you check in the changes, use @kbd{C-u C-x v v}.  This lets you
+specify the revision ID for the new revision.  You should specify a
+suitable branch ID for a branch starting at the current revision.
+For example, if the current revision is 2.5, the branch ID should be
+2.5.1, 2.5.2, and so on, depending on the number of existing branches at
+that point.
+  To create a new branch at an older revision (one that is no longer the
+head of a branch), first select that revision (@pxref{Switching
+Branches}).  Your procedure will then differ depending on whether you
+are using a locking or merging-based VCS.
+  On a locking VCS, you will need to lock the old revision branch with
address@hidden v v}.  You'll be asked to confirm, when you lock the old
+revision, that you really mean to create a new branch---if you say no,
+you'll be offered a chance to lock the latest revision instead.  On
+a merging-based VCS you will skip this step.
+  Then make your changes and type @kbd{C-x v v} again to check in a new
+revision.  This automatically creates a new branch starting from the
+selected revision.  You need not specially request a new branch, because
+that's the only way to add a new revision at a point that is not the head
+of a branch.
+  After the branch is created, you ``stay'' on it.  That means that
+subsequent check-ins create new revisions on that branch.  To leave the
+branch, you must explicitly select a different revision with @kbd{C-u C-x
+v v}.  To transfer changes from one branch to another, use the merge
+command, described in the next section.
address@hidden Merging
address@hidden Merging Branches
address@hidden merging changes
+  When you have finished the changes on a certain branch, you will
+often want to incorporate them into the file's main line of development
+(the trunk).  This is not a trivial operation, because development might
+also have proceeded on the trunk, so that you must @dfn{merge} the
+changes into a file that has already been changed otherwise.  VC allows
+you to do this (and other things) with the @code{vc-merge} command.
address@hidden @kbd
address@hidden C-x v m (vc-merge)
+Merge changes into the work file.
address@hidden table
address@hidden C-x v m
address@hidden vc-merge
+  @kbd{C-x v m} (@code{vc-merge}) takes a set of changes and merges it
+into the current version of the work file.  It firsts asks you in the
+minibuffer where the changes should come from.  If you just type
address@hidden, Emacs merges any changes that were made on the same branch
+since you checked the file out (we call this @dfn{merging the news}).
+This is the common way to pick up recent changes from the repository,
+regardless of whether you have already changed the file yourself.
+  You can also enter a branch ID or a pair of revision IDs in
+the minibuffer.  Then @kbd{C-x v m} finds the changes from that
+branch, or the differences between the two revisions you specified, and
+merges them into the current revision of the current file.
+  As an example, suppose that you have finished a certain feature on
+branch 1.3.1.  In the meantime, development on the trunk has proceeded
+to revision 1.5.  To merge the changes from the branch to the trunk,
+first go to the head revision of the trunk, by typing @kbd{C-u C-x v v
address@hidden  Revision 1.5 is now current.  If locking is used for the file,
+type @kbd{C-x v v} to lock revision 1.5 so that you can change it.  Next,
+type @kbd{C-x v m 1.3.1 @key{RET}}.  This takes the entire set of changes on
+branch 1.3.1 (relative to revision 1.3, where the branch started, up to
+the last revision on the branch) and merges it into the current revision
+of the work file.  You can now check in the changed file, thus creating
+revision 1.6 containing the changes from the branch.
+  It is possible to do further editing after merging the branch, before
+the next check-in.  But it is usually wiser to check in the merged
+revision, then lock it and make the further changes.  This will keep
+a better record of the history of changes.
address@hidden conflicts
address@hidden resolving conflicts
+  When you merge changes into a file that has itself been modified, the
+changes might overlap.  We call this situation a @dfn{conflict}, and
+reconciling the conflicting changes is called @dfn{resolving a
+  Whenever conflicts occur during merging, VC detects them, tells you
+about them in the echo area, and asks whether you want help in merging.
+If you say yes, it starts an Ediff session (@pxref{Top,
+Ediff, Ediff, ediff, The Ediff Manual}).
+  If you say no, the conflicting changes are both inserted into the
+file, surrounded by @dfn{conflict markers}.  The example below shows how
+a conflict region looks; the file is called @samp{name} and the current
+master file revision with user B's changes in it is 1.11.
address@hidden @w here is so CVS won't think this is a conflict.
address@hidden<}<<<<<< name
+  @var{User A's version}
+  @var{User B's version}
address@hidden>}>>>>>> 1.11
address@hidden group
address@hidden smallexample
address@hidden vc-resolve-conflicts
+  Then you can resolve the conflicts by editing the file manually.  Or
+you can type @code{M-x vc-resolve-conflicts} after visiting the file.
+This starts an Ediff session, as described above.  Don't forget to
+check in the merged version afterwards.
address@hidden Multi-User Branching
address@hidden Multi-User Branching
+  It is often useful for multiple developers to work simultaneously on
+different branches of a file.  CVS and later systems allow this by
+default; for RCS, it is possible if you create multiple source
+directories.  Each source directory should have a link named
address@hidden which points to a common directory of RCS master files.
+Then each source directory can have its own choice of selected
+revisions, but all share the same common RCS records.
+  This technique works reliably and automatically, provided that the
+source files contain RCS version headers
+(@pxref{Version Headers,,,emacs-xtra, Specialized Emacs Features}).
address@hidden iftex
+(@pxref{Version Headers}).
address@hidden ifnottex
+The headers enable Emacs to be sure, at all times, which revision
+ID is present in the work file.
+  If the files do not have version headers, you must instead tell Emacs
+explicitly in each session which branch you are working on.  To do this,
+first find the file, then type @kbd{C-u C-x v v} and specify the correct
+branch ID.  This ensures that Emacs knows which branch it is using
+during this particular editing session.
address@hidden vc1-xtra.texi
address@hidden ifnottex
 @node Change Log
 @section Change Logs
@@ -97,8 +1440,12 @@
 (@pxref{Change Logs and VC}).
 @end ifnottex
+* Format of ChangeLog:: What the change log file looks like.
address@hidden menu
 @node Format of ChangeLog
address@hidden Format of ChangeLog
address@hidden Format of ChangeLog
   A change log entry starts with a header line that contains the current
 date, your name, and your email address (taken from the variable

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