Thanks Federico, I think most of us would have heard of those terms and some of us might even be familiar with them.
Here's how I think the overall intelligence can fit in, but need some help with blending it into the lore:
The humans built the globs as a self-sustaining terraforming entity to terraform the planet, and the entire entity is controlled by a central AI, which is the player. The central AI is not located in a central CPU or location, but is an emergent entity as a result of the communication between the globs (is this what you mean Federico?).
They have also been programmed to attack any other moving creatures sighted, unless it is a friendly glob. However, at some point because the globs got separated into different locations throughout the planet and survived on their own for some time, the central AI was split into separate entities as well. That's why they don't recognise 'enemy' globs when sighted, because they're not controlled by the same AI entity.
They haven't forgotten their original purpose, which is to terraform the planet. That is done by building special monuments on the ground (we could use this to separate the Prestige system from schools - create a new building type for prestige which is only enabled after level 3 schools) that's why whenever a faction builds a certain number of monuments on the ground, it wins, as it would have served its purpose.
To explain why you win by killing the other factions, theoretically speaking if you're the only faction of globs on the planet and there is no other force standing in your way, you will inevitably be able to achieve the purpose stated above.
As for why the workers know where to harvest resources out of sight, we can say that the high level emergent AI (the player) does not have access to 100% of the combined knowledge of every single glob, but only have access to their recent memory. The workers would not have gone to the off-sight resource recently, but they would have gone there some time ago. So they remember it even though the player doesn't.
So there you go.