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[Help-glpk] Version 0.1 of GLPK FAQ
From: |
Harley Mackenzie |
Subject: |
[Help-glpk] Version 0.1 of GLPK FAQ |
Date: |
Wed, 24 Dec 2003 15:40:15 +1100 |
I have taken the liberty of creating a GLPK FAQ for version 4.3+ based upon
answers from Andrew Makhorin to my email questions, trolling through the
mailing list archives and creating new content where required. I have tried to
include contributors to the FAQ in the FAQ contributors list but if I have
missed anyone please let me know.
At the moment I have written the FAQ using OpenOffice 1.1.0 to give me the
greatest flexibility with the final formats but I have included only the text
version here (with lots of hand editing). In the future I can produce PDF's ,
HTML and text automatically probably directly from OpenOffice or via DocBook
and an XLST.
The FAQ is a contribution to the GLPK community and is licensed under GPL. I
hope that this document can become part of the official GLPK distribution as I
would have wanted to read a document such as this when I was starting out with
GLPK.
Obviously this is NOT a comprehensive list of questions and answers yet, so if
you have any questions (and hopefully the answers too) please send them to me
at address@hidden for inclusion and I will ensure that your contribution is
noted. Any ideas or suggestions for the FAQ would also be appreciated.
Regards,
Harley Mackenzie
-----
GLPK Frequently Asked Questions
Author: Dr. Harley Mackenzie <address@hidden>
Version: 0.1
Date: 23 December 2003
Table of Contents
Introduction
What is GPLK?
Who develops and maintains GLPK?
How is GLPK licensed?
How do I download and install GLPK?
Who maintains this FAQ and how do I contribute to this FAQ?
FAQ contributors
GLPK functions & features
What is the current state of GLPK development?
How does GLPK compare with other LP codes?
What are the differences between AMPL and GNU MathProg?
What input file formats does GLPK support?
What interfaces are available for GLPK?
Where can I find some examples?
How do I compile and link a GLPK application on a UNIX platform?
How do I compile and link a GLPK application on a Win32 platform?
How do I limit the GLPK execution time?
GLPK Linear Programming
What is Linear Programming and how does it work?
How do I determine the stability of an LP solution?
What is the difference between checks and constraints?
GLPK Integer Programming
What is Integer Programming and how does it work?
What is the Integer Optimization Suite (IOS)?
I have just changed an LP to a MIP and now it doesn$(Bt (Bwork?
Introduction
What is GPLK?
GLPK stands for the GNU Linear Programming Kit. The GLPK package is a
set of routines written in ANSI C and organized in the form of a
callable library. This package is intended for solving large-scale
linear programming (LP), mixed integer linear programming (MIP), and
other related problems.
The GLPK package includes the following main components:
* implementation of the simplex method,
* implementation of the primal-dual interior point method,
* implementation of the branch-and-bound method,
* application program interface (API),
* GNU MathProg modeling language (a subset of AMPL),
* GLPSOL, a stand-alone LP/MIP solver.
Who develops and maintains GLPK?
GLPK is currently developed and maintained by Andrew Makhorin,
Department for Applied Informatics, Moscow Aviation Institute, Moscow,
Russia. Andrew's email address is <address@hidden> and his postal
address is 125871, Russia, Moscow, Volokolamskoye sh., 4, Moscow
Aviation Institute, Andrew O. Makhorin
How is GLPK licensed?
GLPK is currently licensed under the GNU General Public License
(GPL). GLPK is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option) any
later version.
GLPK is not licensed under the Lesser General Public License (LGPL) as
distinct from other free LP codes such as lp_solve. The most
significant implication is that code that is linked to the GLPK
library must be released under the GPL, whereas with the LGPL, code
linked to the library does not have to be released under the same
license.
How do I download and install GLPK?
The GLPK source distribution can be found in the subdirectory
/gnu/glpk/ on your favorite GNU mirror:
<http://www.gnu.org/prep/ftp.html>
and can be compiled directly from the source.
The GLPK package (like all other GNU software) is distributed in the
form of packed archive. This is one file named 'glpk-x.y.tar.gz',
where x is the major version number and y is the minor version number.
In order to prepare the distribution for installation you should:
1. Copy the GLPK distribution file to some subdirectory.
2. Enter the command 'gzip -d glpk-x.y.tar.gz' in order to unpack
the distribution file. After unpacking the name of the
distribution file will be automatically changed to
'glpk-x.y.tar'.
3. Enter the command 'tar -x < glpk-x.y.tar' in order to
unarchive the distribution. After this operation the
subdirectory 'glpk-x.y' which is the GLPK distribution will
have been automatically created.
After you have unpacked and unarchived GLPK distribution you should
configure the package, and compiled the application. The result of
compilation is:
* the file 'libglpk.a', which is a library archive containing object code
for all GLPK routines; and
* the program 'glpsol', which is a stand-alone LP/MIP solver.
Complete compilation and installation instructions are included in the
INSTALL file included with the distribution. The distribution
includes make files for the Microsoft Visual C/C++ version 6 and
Borland C/C++ version 5 and by default compiles and links a glpk*.lib
library file, a glpk*.dll DLL file and an glpsol.exe application
file. A GNU Windows 4.1 binary, source and documentation compiled
using the mingw32 C/C++ compiler is also available from
<http://gnuwin32.sourceforge.net/packages/glpk.htm>.
Who maintains this FAQ and how do I contribute to this FAQ?
The present maintainer of this FAQ is Dr. Harley Mackenzie, HARD
software, although the content of the FAQ is derived from many sources
such as GLPK documentation, GLPK email archives and original content.
Harley's email address is <address@hidden> and his postal
address is c/o HARD software, PO Box 8004, Newtown, Victoria 3220,
Australia.
All contributions to this FAQ, such as questions and (preferably)
answers should be sent to the <address@hidden> email
address. This FAQ is copyright Harley Mackenzie 2003 and is released
under the same license, terms and conditions as GLPK, that is, GPL
version 2 or later.
Contributions are not directly referenced in the body of the FAQ as
this would become unmanageable and messy, but rather as a list of
contributors to this FAQ. If you are the author of any information
included in this FAQ and you do not want your content to be included,
please contact the FAQ maintainer and your material will be
removed. Also if you have not been correctly included as a contributor
to this FAQ, your details have changed, or you do not want your name
listed in the list of contributors, please contact the FAQ maintainer
for correction.
FAQ contributors
* Michael Hennebry
* http://www-unix.mcs.anl.gov/otc/Guide/faq/linear-programming-faq.html
* Harley Mackenzie, HARD software Pty. Ltd.
* Andrew Makhorin, Department for Applied Informatics, Moscow Aviation
Institute
GLPK functions & features
What is the current state of GLPK development?
GLPK is a work in progress and is presently under continual
development. As of the current version 4.3, GLPK is a simplex-based
solver is able to handle problems with up to 100,000 constraints. In
particular, it successfully solves all instances from netlib (see the
file bench.txt included in the GLPK distribution). The interior-point
solver is not very robust as it is unable to handle dense columns,
sometimes terminates due to numeric instability or slow convergence.
The Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) solver currently is based on
branch-and-bound, so it is unable to solve hard or very large problems
with a probable practical limit of 100-200 integer variables. However,
sometimes it is able to solve larger problems of up to 1000 integer
variables, although the size that depends on properties of particular
problem.
How does GLPK compare with other LP codes?
I think that on very large-scale instances CPLEX 8.0 dual simplex is
10-100 times faster than the GLPK simplex solver and, of course, much
more robust. In many cases GLPK is faster and more robust than
lp_solve 4.0 for pure LPs as well as MIP's. See the bench.txt file in
the GLPK distribution doc directory for GLPK netlib benchmark results.
You can find benchmarks for some LP and MIP solvers such as CPLEX,
GLPK, lp_solve, and OSL on Hans Mittelmann's webpage at
<http://plato.asu.edu/bench.html>.
What are the differences between AMPL and GNU MathProg?
The subset of AMPL implemented in MathProg approximately corresponds
to AMPL status in 1990, because it is mainly based on the paper Robert
Fourer, David M Gay and Brian W Kernighan (1990), "A Modeling Language
for Mathematical Programming", Management Science, Vol 36, pp. 519-554
and is available at:
<http://users.iems.nwu.edu/~4er/WRITINGS/amplmod.pdf>.
The GNU MathProg translator was developed as part of GLPK. However,
GNU MathProg can be easily used in other applications as there is a
set of MathProg interface routines designed for use in other
applications.
What input file formats does GLPK support?
GLPK presently can read input and output LP model files in three
supported formats:
* MPS format - which is a column oriented and widely supported file format
but has poor human readability.
* CPLEX format - which is an easily readable row oriented format.
* GNU MathProg - which is an AMPL like mathematical modeling language.
What interfaces are available for GLPK?
The GLPK package is in fact a C API that can be either by statically
or dynamically linked directly with many programming systems.
Presently there are three contributed external interfaces included with the
GLPK package:
* GLPK Java Native Interface (JNI)
* GLPK Delphi Interface (DELI)
* GLPKMEX Matlab MEX interface
There is an unofficial Microsoft Visual Basic, Tcl/Tk and Java GLPK
interface available at:
<http://gottfried.lindner.bei.t-online.de/glpk.htm>.
There are other language interfaces under development, including a
Perl interface currently being developed by the FAQ maintainer,
Dr. Harley Mackenzie <address@hidden>.
Where can I find some examples?
The GLPK package distribution contains many examples written in GNU
MathProg (*.mod), C API calls (*.c), CPLEX input file format (*.lpt),
MPS format (*.mps) as well as some specific Traveling Salesman
examples (*.tsp).
All of the examples can be found in the GLPK distribution examples
sub-directory.
How do I compile and link a GLPK application on a UNIX platform?
To compile a GLPK application on a UNIX platform, then compiler must
be able to include the GLPK include files and link to the GLPK
library. For example, on a system where the GLPK system is installed:
gcc mylp.c -o mylp -lglpk
or specify the include files and libglpk.a explicitly, if GLPK is not
installed.
How do I compile and link a GLPK application on a Win32 platform?
On a Win32 platform, GLPK is implemented either as a Win32 Dynamic
Link Library (DLL) or can be statically linked to the glpk*.lib
file. As with the UNIX instructions, a GLPK application must set a
path to the GLPK include files and also reference the GLPK library if
statically linked.
How do I limit the GLPK execution time?
You can limit the computing time by setting the control parameter
LPX_K_TMLIM via the API routine lpx_set_real_parm. At present there is
no way of limiting the execution time of glpsol without changing the
source and recompiling a specific version.
GLPK Linear Programming
What is Linear Programming and how does it work?
Linear Programming is a mathematical technique that is a generic
method for solving certain systems of equations with linear terms. The
real power of LP's are that they have many practical applications and
have proven to be a powerful and robust tool.
The best single source of information on LP's is the Linear
Programming FAQ:
<http://www-unix.mcs.anl.gov/otc/Guide/faq/linear-programming-faq.html>
that has information on LP's and MIP's, includes a comprehensive list
of available LP software and has many LP references for further study.
How do I determine the stability of an LP solution?
You can perform sensitivity analysis by specifying the --bounds option
for glpsol (version 4.2+) as:
glpsol ... --bounds filename
in which case the solver writes results of the analysis to the
specified filename in plain text format. The corresponding API routine
is lpx_print_sens_bnds().
What is the difference between checks and constraints?
Check statements are intended to check that all data specified by the
user of the model are correct, mainly in the data section of a
MathProg model. For example, if some parameter means the number of
nodes in a network, it must be positive integer, that is just the
condition to be checked in the check statement (although in this case
such condition may be also checked directly in the parameter
statement). Note that check statements are performed when the
translator is generating the model, so they cannot include variables.
Constraints are conditions that are expressed in terms of variables
and resolved by the solver after the model has been completely
generated. If all data specified in the model are correct a priori,
check statements are not needed and can be omitted, while constraints
are essential components of the model and therefore cannot be omitted.
GLPK Integer Programming
What is Integer Programming and how does it work?
Integer LP models are ones whose variables are constrained to take
integer or whole number (as opposed to fractional) values. It may not
be obvious that integer programming is a very much harder problem than
ordinary linear programming, but that is nonetheless the case, in both
theory and practice.
What is the Integer Optimization Suite (IOS)?
IOS is a framework to implement implicit enumeration methods based on
LP relaxation (like branch-and-bound and branch-and-cut). Currently
IOS includes only basic features (the enumeration tree, API routines,
and the driver) and is not completely documented.
I have just changed an LP to a MIP and now it doesn't work?
If you have an existing LP that is working and you change to an MIP
and receive a "lpx_integer: optimal solution of LP relaxation
required" 204 (==LPX_E_FAULT) error, you probably have not called
the LP solution method lpx_simplex() before lpx_integer(). The MIP
routines use the LP solution as part of the MIP solution methodology.
------------------------------------------------------------------
Dr. Harley Mackenzie ACN: 087 953 839
ABN: 27 087 953 839
HARD Software Web: www.hardsoftware.com
207 Noble Street Tel: +61 3 5222 3435
Newtown 3220, Australia Email: address@hidden
------------------------------------------------------------------
- [Help-glpk] Version 0.1 of GLPK FAQ,
Harley Mackenzie <=