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Re: Music Glossary - 1.64 Concert Pitch (2.12.2)

From: Han-Wen Nienhuys
Subject: Re: Music Glossary - 1.64 Concert Pitch (2.12.2)
Date: Fri, 3 Apr 2009 17:25:26 -0300

To add some confusion, some instruments are named by the tuning of
their fundamental (B-flat trombone, B-flat french horn), but players
commonly read from parts written in different transpositions, for
example C (trombone) or F (French Horn)

On Fri, Apr 3, 2009 at 3:30 PM,  <address@hidden> wrote:
> On Fri, Apr 3, 2009, "Anthony W. Youngman"
> <address@hidden> said:
>> Sorry, reading this was painful
> agreed.
>> 1.64 concert pitch
> Ensembles must agree on a temperament and a pitch standard if they are to
> be tuned agreeably.  Equal temperament is usual for the full orchestra
> with winds, piano, and strings which plays repertoire in a full range of
> keys.  The pitch of the A above middle C is the conventional reference
> point.
> A=440 Hz has been the practice for many orchestras over the past several
> decades, but in recent years some are creeping sharper, even to A=445; on
> the theory that it is good to have the violins sound brighter, tho it
> leaves the woodwind section rather challenged, as it is difficult (and
> expensive) to adjust some winds sharper.  Other reference pitches have
> been used historically, and sometimes different places had variant
> practices.  Many ensembles specializing in music from historical periods
> will employ other reference pitches, and may also employ non-equal
> temperaments.
>> 1.311 transposing instrument
> Some instruments play in a range which is awkward to transcribe useing the
> common G and F clefs, too many ledger lines is challanging to read.
> Octave-transposing clefs provide one solution to this problem.
> Some instruments are used in different sizes to accomodate play in
> particular ranges; the playing techniques are often close enough that
> skill on one carries over to the others, and so some members of the
> orchestra will play a variety of instruments which differ in size and
> fundamental pitch.  The challenge of reading for each of several
> instruments is eased when the parts are written transposed.  As an
> example, the Soprano C clarinet is the reference for the family. Music for
> it is written a sounding pitch.  Music for the lower-pitched Bb clarinet
> is written transposed upward by a second, the player reads the same as for
> a 'C' instrument, it plays a second lower than the written pitch.  This
> practice is a great convenience for the orchestral player, but does make
> for confusion to anyone ignorant of the practice, perhaps while reading
> the orchestral score.
> --
> Dana Emery
> _______________________________________________
> lilypond-devel mailing list
> address@hidden

Han-Wen Nienhuys - address@hidden -

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