>side (an answer after evaluating the left hand side), >However, there are other difficulties: often, there is no canonical form for the right hand >in the input (left hand side) latex string. >_expression_ and then as selatex, and one difficulty is the lack of semantics implicit >formula for an integral) given in latex into Axiom code which then, by executing the >if I am still wrong) is that you want to translate the left hand side of an identity (like a
William Sit wrote:>I am still not sure what your immediate goal is. My current understanding (correct me
>code, generates the right hand side of that identity, first by outputted as an Axiom
Well, the selatex output would only happen if you asked for it, but yes, this is correct.
If you look at the CATS Schaum's Integration set you'll see that each Axiom
integration result was subtracted from the published result, expecting it to simplify to 0.
(This is undecidable).
Where the answers differed they usually differed by a constant
(which was shown by taking the derivative of the difference). Sometimes special
simplification routines were needed, other times some rules had to be applied to get
some trig identities. More than once there was no resolution, which either indicates
a bug in Axiom, an error in the published result, or some hidden semantic assumption.
Even more interesting is that many of the reference books list many results.
>nor does Axiom always give the provisos under which the evaluation/identity is valid
One crisis at a time... Axiom has, for example, branch cut choices and these need to
be made explicit. Ideally, these could be changed by provisos. The SuchThat domain
provides some proviso functionality but is rarely used at present. However, the published
results don't provide the provisos either making the whole issue invisible despite
>For test suites, you won't have to worry about the canonical form or provisos because
>you are only comparing the answer with the one generated by a previous version of
>Axiom, to make sure nothing is "broken". For that purpose, the semantic you need only
>needs to be consistent from one Axiom version to the next, and you may choose the
>specific parameters needed in any way where the identity makes sense.
The regression tests use exactly this philosophy. But the CATS tests are a
"Computer Algebra Test Suite", not an Axiom test suite so they are measured against
published results. On several occasions Axiom has found errors in the published results.
>The general problem (which I am not sure if you are pursuing) where one wants to add
>explicit semantic to any mathematical _expression_ given in latex is a far more challenging
>one, independent of whether the _expression_ can or should be evaluated, or semantic
>provided for the rewritten _expression_ (or "answer"). I wonder if the general problem has
>applications. Would such mark-ups help or hinder the creation of a piece of mathematical
In general I don't think published mathematics will adopt semantic markup. The context
available in the surrounding paragraphs is sufficient. Most formulas are just there
to make the text statements exact.
However, for reference works that have no surrounding paragraphs like the CRC/NIST/etc.
the loss of paragraphs makes the formulas ambiguous. The E=mc^2 formula has no
meaning if you don't know what E, m, and c are.
Reference works lack grounding. This is an effort to provide semantic grounding by
showing that the formula is backed by algorithms that can recover the "results".
Is that useful?
The CATS test suite shows that Axiom has problems which need to be solved.
It also shows that the reference works have published errors. Both efforts benefit.
Is it of interest? Apparently so. Every so often someone tries to parse latex with the
goal of automation or inter-system communication. The natural source of latex
formulas are the reference works. The parsing effort fails every time based
on the lack of semantics. This effort addresses the "root cause", making the
reference works much more useful.