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Bash-2.05a available for FTP

From: Chet Ramey
Subject: Bash-2.05a available for FTP
Date: Thu, 15 Nov 2001 09:51:38 -0500

The first public release of bash-2.05a is now available with the URLs


and from the usual GNU mirror sites.

This tar file does not include the formatted documentation
(postscript, dvi, html, and nroffed versions of the manual pages);
that may be retrieved with the URLs


When unpacking the documentation, make sure to extract the tar file
in the bash-2.05a source directory.

Diffs from bash-2.05 are available with the URLs


Make sure to apply the diffs using `patch -p1' from within a
bash-2.05 source directory.

Please use `bashbug' to report bugs with this version.  It is built
and installed at the same time as bash.


Please read the README file first.

Installation instructions are provided in the INSTALL file.

New Features

This is primarily a bug fix release (as are all odd-numbered releases). 

The raison d'etre for bash-2.05a is to make an intermediate release
containing principally bug fixes (some very good work was done and
contributed after bash-2.05 was released) available before I start to
work on the major new features to be available in the next release
(bash-2.06 or bash-3.0 or whatever I tag it).  As such, there are
only a few relatively minor new features.

Read the file NEWS in the bash-2.05a distribution for a complete description
of the (few) new features.  Here is a short list:

o The `printf' builtin has undergone major work

o There is a new read-only `shopt' option: login_shell, which is set by
  login shells and unset otherwise

o New `\A' prompt string escape sequence; expanding to time in 24-hour
  HH:MM format

o New `-A group/-g' option to complete and compgen; goes group name

o New [+-]O invocation option to set and unset `shopt' options at startup

o ksh-like `ERR' trap

o `for' loops now allow empty word lists after the `in' reserved word

o new `hard' and `soft' arguments for the `ulimit' builtin

o Readline can be configured to place the user at the same point on the line
  when retrieving commands from the history list

o Readline can be configured to skip `hidden' files (filenames with a leading
  `.' on Unix) when performing completion

Changes have been made to the Readline library being released at
the same time as bash-2.05a, readline-4.2a, so that Bash can be
linked against an already-installed Readline library rather than
the private version in lib/readline.  Only readline-4.2 and later
versions are able to provide all of the symbols that bash-2.05a
requires; earlier versions of the Readline library will not work

A complete list of changes between bash-2.05 and bash-2.05a is
available in the file CHANGES; the relevant portions are appended.


Also available is a new release of the standalone readline library,
version 4.2a, with its own configuration scripts and Makefiles. 
It can be retrieved with the URLs


and from the usual GNU mirror sites.

Diffs from readline-4.2 are available with the URLs


Make sure to install the patches using `patch -p1 < patch-file' from
within a readline-4.2 source directory.

The formatted Readline documentation is included in the readline
distribution tar file.

A separate announcement listing the changes in Readline is being

As always, thanks for your help.


+========== CHANGES ==========+
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.05a-release,
and the previous version, bash-2.05a-rc1.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  Fixed the `printf' builtin so that the variable name supplied as an
    argument to a %n conversion must be a valid shell identifier.

b.  Improved the random number generator slightly.

c.  Changes to configuration to not put -I/usr/include into $CFLAGS, since
    it messes up some includes.

d.  Corrected description of POSIXLY_CORRECT in man page and info manual.

e.  Fixed a couple of cases of incorrect function prototypes that sneaked
    through and caused compilation problems.

f.  A few changes to avoid potential core dumps in the programmable completion

g.  Fixed a configure problem that could cause a non-existent file to show
    up in LIBOBJS.

h.  Fixed a configure problem that could cause siglist.o to not be built when

i.  Changes to the strtoimax and strtoumax replacement functions to work
    around buggy compilers.

j.  Fixed a problem with the snprintf replacement function that could
    potentially cause a core dump.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  Fixed a locale-specific problem in the vi-mode `goto mark' command.

b.  Fixed Makefile to not put -I/usr/include into CFLAGS, since it can cause
    include file problems.

This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.05a-rc1,
and the previous version, bash-2.05a-beta1.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  Fixed the snprintf replacement to correctly implement the `alternate form'
    of the %g and %G conversions.

b.  Fixed snprintf to correctly handle the optional precision with the %g and
    %G conversions.

c.  Fixed the arithmetic evaluation code to correct the values of `@' and `_'
    when translating base-64 constants (they were backwards).

d.  New library functions for formatting long and long long ints.

e.  Fixed a few places where negative array subscripts could have occurred,
    mostly as the result of systems using signed characters.

f.  Fixed a few places that assumed a pid_t was no wider than an int.

g.  Fixed the `maildir' mail checking code to work on systems where a
    `struct stat' doesn't include an `st_blocks' member.

h.  Fixed snprintf to make `unsigned long long' conversion formats (%llu)
    work better.

i.  Fixed snprintf to not print a sign when asked to do an unsigned conversion.

j.  Made configure changes to avoid compiling empty source files in lib/sh.

k.  New replacement functions (if necessary) for strtoull, strtoll, strtoimax,

l.  The `printf' builtin now handles the `ll' and `j' length modifiers
    directly, since they can affect the type and width of the argument
    passed to printf(3).

m.  Renamed a number of the bash-specific autoconf macros in aclocal.m4 to
    have more sytematic naming, with accompanying changes to configure.in.

n.  Fixed snprintf to handle long doubles and the %a/%A conversions by
    falling back to sprintf, as long as sprintf supports them.

o.  Fixed return value from vsnprintf/snprintf to be the number of characters
    that would have been printed, even if that number exceeds the buffer
    size passed as an argument.

p.  Bash no longer attempts to define its own versions of some ctype macros
    if they are implemented as functions in libc but not as macros in

q.  Changed the variable printing code (used by `set', `export', etc.) to
    not use the $'...' syntax when in posix mode, since that caused
    interoperability problems with other shells (most notably with autoconf).
    When not in posix mode, it uses $'...' if the string to be printed
    contains non-printing characters and regular single quotes otherwise.

r.  snprintf now recognizes the %F conversion.

s.  Fixed a bug that could cause the wrong status to be returned by a shell
    function when the shell is compiled without job control and a null
    command containing a command substutition was executed in the function.

t.  When in posix mode, the default value for MAILCHECK is 600.

u.  Bash only initializes FUNCNAME, GROUPS, and DIRSTACK as special variables
    if they're not in the initial environment.

v.  If SECONDS appears in the initial environment with a valid integer value,
    bash uses that as the starting value, as if an assignment had been

w.  Bash no longer auto-exports HOME, PATH, SHELL, or TERM, even though it
    gives them default values if they don't appear in the initial environment.

x.  Bash no longer auto-exports HOSTNAME, HOSTTYPE, MACHTYPE, or OSTYPE,
    even if it assigns them default values.

y.  Bash no longer removes the export attribute from SSH_CLIENT or SSH2_CLIENT
    if they appear in the initial environment.

z.  Bash no longer attempts to discover if it's being run by sshd in order to
    run the startup files.  If the SSH_SOURCE_BASHRC is uncommented in
    config-top.h it will attempt to do so as previously, but that's commented
    out in the distributed version.

aa. Fixed a typo in the code that tests for LC_NUMERIC.

bb. The POSIXLY_CORRECT shell variable and its effects are now documented.

cc. Some changes to several of the support shell scripts included in the
    definitions to try to avoid race conditions and attacks.

dd. Several changes to avoid warnings from `gcc -Wall'.

ee. Fixed a problem with the `unset' builtin that could cause incorrect
    results if asked to unset a variable and an array subscript in the
    same command.

ff. A few changes to the shell's temporary file creation code to avoid
    potential file descriptor leaks and to prefer the system's idea of
    the temporary directory to use.

gg. Fixes to build with the C alloca in lib/malloc/alloca.c if the system
    requires it but the shell has been configured --without-bash-malloc.

hh. Updated the documentation to note that only interactive shells resend
    SIGHUP to all jobs before exiting.

ii. Fixes to only pass unquoted tilde words to tilde_expand, rather than
    rely on tilde_expand or getpwnam(3) to handle the quotes (MacOS 10.x
    will remove backslashes in any login name passed to getpwnam(3)).

jj. Small change from Paul Eggert to make LINENO right in commands run with
    `bash -c'.

2.  New Features in Bash

a.  The `printf' builtin now handles the %a and %A conversions if they're
    implemented by printf(3).

b.  The `printf' builtin now handles the %F conversion (just about like %f).

c.  The `printf' builtin now handles the %n conversion like printf(3).  The
    corresponding argument is the name of a shell variable to which the
    value is assigned.

3.  Changes to Readline

a.  Fixed a few places where negative array subscripts could have occurred.

b.  Fixed the vi-mode code to use a better method to determine the bounds of
    the array used to hold the marks.

c.  Fixed the defines in chardefs.h to work better when chars are signed.

d.  Fixed configure.in to use the new names for bash autoconf macros.

e.  Readline no longer attempts to define its own versions of some ctype
    macros if they are implemented as functions in libc but not as macros in

f.  Fixed a problem where rl_backward could possibly set point to before
    the beginning of the line.

This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.05a-beta1,
and the previous version, bash-2.05a-alpha1.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  Fixed a bug in the evalution of arithmetic `for' statements when the
    expanded expression is NULL.

b.  Fixed an unassigned variable problem in the redirection printing code.

c.  Added more prototypes to extern function declarations in the header
    files and to static function declarations in C source files.

d.  Make sure called functions have a prototype in scope, to get the arguments
    and return values right instead of casting.  Removed extern function
    declarations from C source files that were already included in header

e.  Changed some function arguments to use function typedefs in general.h so
    the prototypes can be checked.  The only use of Function and VFunction
    now is for unwind-protects.

f.  More const changes to function arguments and appropriate variables.

g.  Changed the mail checking support to handle `maildir'-style mail

h.  Augmented the bash malloc to pass in the file and line number information
    for each malloc, realloc, and free.  This should result in better error

i.  The `old' gnu malloc is no longer a configuration option.

j.  Augmented the bash malloc with optional tracing and registering allocated
    and freed memory.

k.  Prompt string decoding now saves and restores the value of $? when it
    expands the prompt string, so command substitutions don't change $?.

i.  Array indices are now `long', since shell arithmetic is performed as long,
    and the internal arrayind_t type is used consistently.

j.  Some more `unsigned char *' fixes from Paul Eggert.

k.  Fixed a bad call to builtin_error that could cause core dumps when making
    local variables.

l.  `return' may no longer be used to terminate a `select' command, for
    compatibility with ksh.

m.  Changed code that reads octal numbers to do a better job of detecting

n.  The time formatting code no longer uses absolute indices into a buffer,
    because the buffer size changes depending on the size of a `time_t'.

o.  `umask' now prints four digits when printing in octal mode, for
    compatibility with other shells.

p.  Lots of changes to the `printf' builtin from Paul Eggert:  it handles `L'
    formats and long doubles better, and internal functions have been
    simpified where appropriate.

q.  Some `time_t' fixes for machines were a time_t is bigger than a long.

r.  Replaced some bash-specific autoconf macros with standard equivalents.

s.  Improvmed the code that constructs temporary filenames to make the
    generated names a bit more random.

t.  Added code that checks for ascii before calling any of the is* ctype

u.  Changed some places where a `char' was used as an array subscript to use
    `unsigned char', since a `char' can be negative if it's signed by default.

v.  Lots of changes to the `ulimit' builtin from Paul Eggert to add support
    for the new POSIX-200x RLIM_SAVED_CUR and RLIM_SAVED_MAX values and
    simplify the code.

w.  `ulimit' now prints the description of a resource in any error message
    relating to fetching or setting that resource's limits.

x.  The `snprintf' replacement now computes maximum values at compile
    time rather than using huge constants for things like long long.

y.  Interactive shells now ignore `set -n'.

z.  Changed the malloc bookkeeping information so that it's now 8 bytes
    instead of 12 on most 32-bit machines (saving 4 bytes per allocation),
    restoring 8-byte alignment.

aa. The malloc error reporting code now attempts to print the file and line
    number of the call that caused the error.

bb. Changed the redirection error reporting code to catch EBADF errors and
    report the file descriptor number rather than the file being redirected
    to or from (e.g., things like `exec 4242<x' where 4242 is an out-of-range
    file descriptor).

cc. `printf', `echo -e', and the $'...' code now process only two hex digits
    after a `\x' escape sequence for compatibility with other shells, and
    the documentation was changed to note that the octal and hex escape
    sequences result in an eight-bit value rather than strict ASCII.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  The completion code now attempts to do a better job of preserving the
    case of the word the user typed if ignoring case in completions.

b.  Readline defaults to not echoing the input and lets the terminal
    initialization code enable echoing if there is a controlling terminal.

c.  The key binding code now processes only two hex digits after a `\x'
    escape sequence, and the documentation was changed to note that the
    octal and hex escape sequences result in an eight-bit value rather
    than strict ASCII.

3.  New Features in Bash

a.  The builtin `ulimit' now takes two new non-numeric arguments:  `hard',
    meaning the current hard limit, and `soft', meaning the current soft
    limit, in addition to `unlimited'

b.  `ulimit' now prints the option letter associated with a particular
    resource when printing more than one limit.

c.  `ulimit' prints `hard' or `soft' when a value is not `unlimited' but is
    one of RLIM_SAVED_MAX or RLIM_SAVED_CUR, respectively.

4.  New Features in Readline

a.  New bindable variable `history-preserve-point'.  If set, the history
    code attempts to place the user at the same location on each history
    line retrived with previous-history or next-history.

This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.05a-alpha1,
and the previous version, bash-2.05-release.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  Better checks in the redirection code for write errors.

b.  bashbug now uses $TMPDIR, defaulting to /tmp, and uses mktemp(1) more

c.  System-specific configuration changes for:  Interix, OpenBSD, FreeBSD,
    MacOS X.

d.  Some more `const' cleanups through the code.

e.  Fixed a typo in the /dev/fd redirection code, better checks for valid
    numeric fds in /dev/fd.

f.  Fixed many parts of the shell to handle integer overflow more gracefully
    and to do more stringent checks for valid numbers.

g.  Fixed mksignames to include config.h.

h.  Fixed an uninitialized variable problem that could cause the shell to core
    dump when replacing characters in a string.

i.  New mechanism for updating the patch level when official patches are
    released (patchlevel.h).

j.  configure.in changed to no longer require external files _distribution and

k.  Fixed non-interactive shell initialization problem when bash started as
    `bash -i filename'.

l.  Fixed printf builtin conversion error handling to be POSIX.2-conformant.

m.  autoconf-2.52 is now used to build configure; autoconf-2.50 or newer is
    required.  Some of the bash-specific macros were removed, since they are
    now standard.

n.  Startup files and files read with source or `.' are no longer required to
    be regular files.

o.  Fixed core dump in builtin printf when user-supplied precision or field
    width is 0.

p.  Fixed builtin printf to treat a negative field width as a positive field
    width with left-justification.

r.  New unwind-protect implementation from Paul Eggert.

s.  Fixed an inadvertently-unclosed comment in the bash completion code that
    caused programmable completions to not add trailing slashes or spaces to

t.  Fixed the process substitution code to cope better when stdin is closed.

v.  Fixes, mostly from Paul Eggert, for a few possible buffer overflows in
    the shell.

w.  Fixes from Paul Eggert to avoid most of the type casts in the shell code,
    and use more appropriate types for a number of variables.

x.  Command substition no longer inherits the DEBUG trap.

y.  Some fixes to the process substition code on machines without /dev/fd so
    that named pipes are not removed inappropriately.

z.  The loadable `getconf' builtin is now much more complete, and will become
    part of the shell in the future.

aa. The select command no longer terminates on a `return', so it can be used
    to return from an enclosing function (as ksh does it).

bb. Fixed the extended pattern matching code to behave better when presented
    with incorrectly-formed patterns.

cc. Some changes were made with the intent of making cross-compilation easier.

dd. The network code (/dev/tcp and /dev/udp redirections) uses getaddrinfo(3)
    if it's available, which adds support for IPv6.

ee. Subshells of login shells no longer source ~/.bash_logout when they exit.

ff. Fixes so that subshells don't exit inappropriately if the -e option has
    been set.

gg. Restricted shells no longer allow functions to be exported.

hh. Changes to the pattern matching code so extended pattern matching works
    on systems with deficient shared library implementations, like MacOS X.

ii. Better error messages when a script with a leading `#!interp' fails
    to execute because of problems with `interp'.

jj. Fixed `compgen' to handle the `-o default' option better.

kk. Fixed the job control code to force an asynchronous process's standard
    input to /dev/null only if job control is not active.

ll. Fixed a possible infinite recursion problem when `fc ""=abc' (a null
    pattern) is used to re-execute a previous command.

mm. Fixed `declare [-a] var=value' to assign VALUE to element 0 if VAR is an
    array variable.  Similarly for `declare [-a] var[N]=value'.  This is like

nn. Fixed a bug that caused `read -a aname' to work even if ANAME had been
    declared readonly.

oo. Fixed a possible integer overflow problem when constructing names for
    temporary files.

2.  New Features in Bash

a.  Added support for DESTDIR installation root prefix, so you can do a
    `make install DESTDIR=bash-root' and do easier binary packaging.

b.  Added support for builtin printf "'" flag character as per latest POSIX

c.  Support for POSIX.2 printf(1) length specifiers `j', `t', and `z' (from
    ISO C99).

d.  New autoconf macro, RL_LIB_READLINE_VERSION, for use by other applications
    (bash doesn't use very much of what it returns).

e.  `set [-+]o nolog' is recognized as required by the latest POSIX drafts,
    but ignored.

f.  New read-only `shopt' option:  login_shell.  Set to non-zero value if the
    shell is a login shell.

g.  New `\A' prompt string escape sequence; expands to time in 24 HH:MM format.

h.  New `-A group/-g' option to complete and compgen; does group name

i.  New `-t' option to `hash' to list hash values for each filename argument.

j.  New [-+]O invocation option to set and unset `shopt' options at startup.

k.  configure's `--with-installed-readline' option now takes an optional
    `=PATH' suffix to set the root of the tree where readline is installed
    to PATH.

l.  The ksh-like `ERR' trap has been added.  The `ERR' trap will be run
    whenever the shell would have exited if the -e option were enabled.
    It is not inherited by shell functions.

m.  `readonly', `export', and `declare' now print variables which have been
    given attributes but not set by assigning a value as just a command and
    a variable name (like `export foo') when listing, as the latest POSIX
    drafts require.

n.  `bashbug' now requires that the subject be changed from the default.

o.  configure has a new `--enable-largefile' option, like other GNU utilities.

p.  `for' loops now allow empty word lists after `in', like the latest POSIX
    drafts require.

3.  Changes to Readline

a.  More `const' and type casting fixes.

b.  Changed rl_message() to use vsnprintf(3) (if available) to fix buffer
    overflow problems.

c.  The completion code no longer appends a `/' or ` ' to a match when
    completing a symbolic link that resolves to a directory name, unless
    the match does not add anything to the word being completed.  This
    means that a tab will complete the word up to the full name, but not
    add anything, and a subsequent tab will add a slash.

d.  Fixed a trivial typo that made the vi-mode `dT' command not work.

e.  Fixed the tty code so that ^S and ^Q can be inserted with rl_quoted_insert.

f.  Fixed the tty code so that ^V works more than once.

g.  Changed the use of __P((...)) for function prototypes to PARAMS((...))
    because the use of __P in typedefs conflicted g++ and glibc.

4.  New Features in Readline

a.  Added extern declaration for rl_get_termcap to readline.h, making it a
    public function (it was always there, just not in readline.h).

b.  New #defines in readline.h:  RL_READLINE_VERSION, currently 0x0402,
    RL_VERSION_MAJOR, currently 4, and RL_VERSION_MINOR, currently 2.

c.  New readline variable:  rl_readline_version, mirrors RL_READLINE_VERSION.

d.  New bindable boolean readline variable:  match-hidden-files.  Controls
    completion of files beginning with a `.' (on Unix).  Enabled by default.

e.  The history expansion code now allows any character to terminate a
    `:first-' modifier, like csh.

f.  The incremental search code remembers the last search string and uses
    it if ^R^R is typed without a search string.

``The lyf so short, the craft so long to lerne.'' - Chaucer
( ``Discere est Dolere'' -- chet)

Chet Ramey, CWRU    address@hidden    http://cnswww.cns.cwru.edu/~chet/

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