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Bash-4.4 Release available

From: Chet Ramey
Subject: Bash-4.4 Release available
Date: Fri, 16 Sep 2016 09:17:24 -0400


The first public release of bash-4.4 is now available with the URLs


and from the GNU git repository and the usual GNU mirror sites.

Bash is the GNU Project's Bourne Again SHell, a complete
implementation of the POSIX shell spec, but also with interactive
command line editing, job control on architectures that support it,
csh-like features such as history substitution and brace expansion,
and a slew of other features.  For more information on the features of
Bash that are new to this type of shell, see the file
`doc/bashref.texi'.  There is also a large Unix-style man page.  The
man page is the definitive description of the shell's features. 

This tar file includes the formatted documentation (postscript, dvi, html,
and nroffed versions of the manual pages). 

Please use `bashbug' to report bugs with this version.  It is built
and installed at the same time as bash.


Please read the README file first.

Installation instructions are provided in the INSTALL file.

New Features

This is the fourth revision to the fourth major release of bash.

Read the file NEWS in the bash-4.4 distribution for a complete description
of the new features.  A copy of the relevant portions is included below. 

This release fixes many outstanding bugs in bash-4.3 and introduces several
new features.  The most significant bug fixes are the remaining changes to
reworking of signal handling to avoid running signal and trap handlers in a
signal handler context.  There are also several changes dealing with variables
that have been given attributes but not values, which means they are
technically unset.  The nameref variable implementation was overhauled
and cleaned up considerably, with as little disruption to backwards
compatibility as possible.

All of the released patches for the shellshock vulnerability, and several
other related changes, are included in bash-4.4.

The most notable new features are mapfile's ability to use an arbitrary
record delimiter; a --help option available for nearly all builtins; a
new family of address@hidden expansions that transform the value of
`parameter'; the `local' builtin's ability to save and restore the state
of the single-letter shell option flags around function calls; a new
EXECIGNORE variable, which adds the ability to specify names that should
be ignored when searching for commands; and the beginning of an SDK for
loadable builtins, which consists of a set of headers and a Makefile
fragment that can be included in projects wishing to build their own
loadable builtins, augmented by support for a BASH_LOADABLES_PATH variable
that defines a search path for builtins loaded with `enable -f'.  The existing
loadable builtin examples are now installed by default with `make install'.

There are a few incompatible changes between bash-4.3 and bash-4.4.  Bash
now retains the exit status only of asynchronous jobs, as opposed to all
jobs.  This means that it is not possible to use `wait' to retrieve the
status of a previously-completed synchronous command.  Bash no longer
attempts to perform compound assignment if a variable expansion on the
right-hand side of an assignment statement to `declare' or `local' has the
form of a compound assignment.  There are other changes to compound array
assignments used as arguments to the `declare' and `local' builtins, but
those should be backwards compatible, albeit with warning messages about
deprecated constructs.  Read the descriptions of the various compatibility
options in COMPAT or the man page for more details. 

Bash can be linked against an already-installed Readline library rather
than the private version in lib/readline if desired.  Only readline-7.0 and
later versions are able to provide all of the symbols that bash-4.4 requires;
earlier versions of the Readline library will not work correctly. 

A complete list of changes between bash-4.3 and bash-4.4 is available in
the file CHANGES; the complete list is too large to include in this


Also available is a new release of the standalone Readline library,
version 7.0, with its own configuration scripts and Makefiles. 
It can be retrieved with the URLs


and from the GNU git repository and the usual GNU mirror sites.

The formatted Readline documentation is included in the readline
distribution tar file.

A separate announcement listing the changes in Readline is being

As always, thanks for your help.


+========== NEWS ==========+
This is a terse description of the new features added to bash-4.4 since
the release of bash-4.3.  As always, the manual page (doc/bash.1) is
the place to look for complete descriptions.

1.  New Features in Bash

a.  There is now a settable configuration #define that will cause the shell
    to exit if the shell is running setuid without the -p option and setuid
    to the real uid fails.

b.  Command and process substitutions now turn off the `-v' option when
    executing, as other shells seem to do.

c.  The default value for the `checkhash' shell option may now be set at
    compile time with a #define.

d.  The `mapfile' builtin now has a -d option to use an arbitrary character
    as the record delimiter, and a -t option  to strip the delimiter as
    supplied with -d.

e.  The maximum number of nested recursive calls to `eval' is now settable in
    config-top.h; the default is no limit.

f.  The `-p' option to declare and similar builtins will display attributes for
    named variables even when those variables have not been assigned values
    (which are technically unset).

g.  The maximum number of nested recursive calls to `source' is now settable
    in config-top.h; the default is no limit.

h.  All builtin commands recognize the `--help' option and print a usage

i.  Bash does not allow function names containing `/' and `=' to be exported.

j.  The `ulimit' builtin has new -k (kqueues) and -P (pseudoterminals) options.

k.  The shell now allows `time ; othercommand' to time null commands.

l.  There is a new `--enable-function-import' configuration option to allow
    importing shell functions from the environment; import is enabled by

m.  `printf -v var ""' will now set `var' to the empty string, as if `var=""'
    had been executed.

n.  GLOBIGNORE, the pattern substitution word expansion, and programmable
    completion match filtering now honor the value of the `nocasematch' option.

o.  There is a new address@hidden family of operators to transform the
    value of `parameter'.

p.  Bash no longer attempts to perform compound assignment if a variable on the
    rhs of an assignment statement argument to `declare' has the form of a
    compound assignment (e.g., w='(word)' ; declare foo=$w); compound
    assignments are accepted if the variable was already declared as an array,
    but with a warning.

q.  The declare builtin no longer displays array variables using the compound
    assignment syntax with quotes; that will generate warnings when re-used as
    input, and isn't necessary.

r.  Executing the rhs of && and || will no longer cause the shell to fork if
    it's not necessary.

s.  The `local' builtin takes a new argument: `-', which will cause it to save
    and the single-letter shell options and restore their previous values at
    function return.

t.  `complete' and `compgen' have a new `-o nosort' option, which forces
    readline to not sort the completion matches.

u.  Bash now allows waiting for the most recent process substitution, since it
    appears as $!.

v.  The `unset' builtin now unsets a scalar variable if it is subscripted with
    a `0', analogous to the ${var[0]} expansion.

w.  `set -i' is no longer valid, as in other shells.

x.  BASH_SUBSHELL is now updated for process substitution and group commands
    in pipelines, and is available with the same value when running any exit

y.  Bash now checks $INSIDE_EMACS as well as $EMACS when deciding whether or
    not bash is being run in a GNU Emacs shell window.

z.  Bash now treats SIGINT received when running a non-builtin command in a
    loop the way it has traditionally treated running a builtin command:
    running any trap handler and breaking out of the loop.

aa. New variable: EXECIGNORE; a colon-separate list of patterns that will
    cause matching filenames to be ignored when searching for commands.

bb. Aliases whose value ends in a shell metacharacter now expand in a way to
    allow them to be `pasted' to the next token, which can potentially change
    the meaning of a command (e.g., turning `&' into `&&').

cc. `make install' now installs the example loadable builtins and a set of
    bash headers to use when developing new loadable builtins.

dd. `enable -f' now attempts to call functions named BUILTIN_builtin_load when
    loading BUILTIN, and BUILTIN_builtin_unload when deleting it.  This allows
    loadable builtins to run initialization and cleanup code.

ee. There is a new BASH_LOADABLES_PATH variable containing a list of directories
    where the `enable -f' command looks for shared objects containing loadable

ff. The `complete_fullquote' option to `shopt' changes filename completion to
    quote all shell metacharacters in filenames and directory names.

gg. The `kill' builtin now has a `-L' option, equivalent to `-l', for
    compatibility with Linux standalone versions of kill.

hh. BASH_COMPAT and FUNCNEST can be inherited and set from the shell's initial

ii. inherit_errexit: a new `shopt' option that, when set, causes command
    substitutions to inherit the -e option.  By default, those subshells disable
    -e.  It's enabled as part of turning on posix mode.

jj. New prompt string: PS0.  Expanded and displayed by interactive shells after
    reading a complete command but before executing it.

kk. Interactive shells now behave as if SIGTSTP/SIGTTIN/SIGTTOU are set to
    SIG_DFL when the shell is started, so they are set to SIG_DFL in child

ll. Posix-mode shells now allow double quotes to quote the history expansion

mm. OLDPWD can be inherited from the environment if it names a directory.

nn. Shells running as root no longer inherit PS4 from the environment, closing
    a security hole involving PS4 expansion performing command substitution.

oo. If executing an implicit `cd' when the `autocd' option is set, bash will
    now invoke a function named `cd' if one exists before executing the `cd'

pp. Value conversions (arithmetic expansions, case modification, etc.) now
    happen when assigning elements of an array using compound assignment.

qq. There is a new option settable in config-top.h that makes multiple
    directory arguments to `cd' a fatal error.

rr. Bash now uses mktemp() when creating internal temporary files; it produces
    a warning at build time on many Linux systems.

2.  New Features in Readline

a.  The history truncation code now uses the same error recovery mechansim as
    the history writing code, and restores the old version of the history file
    on error.  The error recovery mechanism handles symlinked history files.

b.  There is a new bindable variable, `enable-bracketed-paste', which enables
    support for a terminal's bracketed paste mode.

c.  The editing mode indicators can now be strings and are user-settable
    (new `emacs-mode-string', `vi-cmd-mode-string' and `vi-ins-mode-string'
    variables).  Mode strings can contain invisible character sequences.
    Setting mode strings to null strings restores the defaults.

d.  Prompt expansion adds the mode string to the last line of a multi-line
    prompt (one with embedded newlines).

e.  There is a new bindable variable, `colored-completion-prefix', which, if
    set, causes the common prefix of a set of possible completions to be
    displayed in color.

f.  There is a new bindable command `vi-yank-pop', a vi-mode version of emacs-
    mode yank-pop.

g.  The redisplay code underwent several efficiency improvements for multibyte

h.  The insert-char function attempts to batch-insert all pending typeahead
    that maps to self-insert, as long as it is coming from the terminal.

i.  rl_callback_sigcleanup: a new application function that can clean up and
    unset any state set by readline's callback mode.  Intended to be used
    after a signal.

j.  If an incremental search string has its last character removed with DEL, the
    resulting empty search string no longer matches the previous line.

k.  If readline reads a history file that begins with `#' (or the value of
    the history comment character) and has enabled history timestamps, the
    history entries are assumed to be delimited by timestamps.  This allows
    multi-line history entries.

l.  Readline now throws an error if it parses a key binding without a
    terminating `:' or whitespace.

m.  The default binding for ^W in vi mode now uses word boundaries specified
    by Posix (vi-unix-word-rubout is bindable command name).

n.  rl_clear_visible_line: new application-callable function; clears all
    screen lines occupied by the current visible readline line.

o.  rl_tty_set_echoing: application-callable function that controls whether
    or not readline thinks it is echoing terminal output.

p.  Handle >| and strings of digits preceding and following redirection
    specifications as single tokens when tokenizing the line for history

q.  Fixed a bug with displaying completions when the prefix display length
    is greater than the length of the completions to be displayed.

r.  The :p history modifier now applies to the entire line, so any expansion
    specifying :p causes the line to be printed instead of expanded.

s.  New application-callable function: rl_pending_signal(): returns the signal
    number of any signal readline has caught but not yet handled.

t.  New application-settable variable: rl_persistent_signal_handlers: if set
    to a non-zero value, readline will enable the readline-6.2 signal handler
    behavior in callback mode: handlers are installed when
    rl_callback_handler_install is called and removed removed when a complete
    line has been read.

``The lyf so short, the craft so long to lerne.'' - Chaucer
                 ``Ars longa, vita brevis'' - Hippocrates
Chet Ramey, UTech, CWRU    address@hidden    http://cnswww.cns.cwru.edu/~chet/

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