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bug#8525: Lisp reader and string-to-number bugs and inconsistencies


From: Paul Eggert
Subject: bug#8525: Lisp reader and string-to-number bugs and inconsistencies
Date: Wed, 20 Apr 2011 02:27:54 -0700
User-agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; U; Linux i686; en-US; rv:1.9.2.14) Gecko/20110223 Thunderbird/3.1.8

Emacs has several problems when converting strings to numbers:

1. On a typical 64-bit host, (string-to-number "2305843009213693951")
   returns 2305843009213693440, which is off by 511.  There are more
   subtle numeric errors due to double-rounding.

2. The Lisp reader sometimes reports integer overflow for large
   integers, and sometimes silently substitutes a float.  For example,
   on a typical 32-bit host, the Lisp reader reads 536870912 as if it
   were 536870912.0, but reports an overflow if it reads 2147483648.

3. The Lisp reader treats the tokens -. and +. as if they were 0, which
   is not documented and surely is not intended.

4. The Lisp reader parses NaNs and infinities, e.g., 0.0e+NaN is
   treated as a NaN; but (string-to-number "0.0e+NaN") returns zero.

I plan to install the following patch to fix these problems, after
some further testing and editing (right just now I noticed a stray
comment "Return the length of the floating-point number ...", which I
will remove).

To fix (2), it's plausible to change the code in one of two ways:
either silently treat large integers as floats, or signal an overflow.
I don't care that much one way or another, but Emacs should be
consistent.  I mildly prefer reporting the overflow, as that is a
better way to allow an upgrade path to arbitrary precision arithmetic,
so that's what the patch below does; but if the consensus is the other
way, I can easily change this.

# Bazaar merge directive format 2 (Bazaar 0.90)
# revision_id: address@hidden
# target_branch: bzr+ssh://address@hidden/emacs/trunk
# testament_sha1: 4a86d5674868b293852101d1d3ad0a7bc157e65c
# timestamp: 2011-04-20 01:43:56 -0700
# base_revision_id: address@hidden
#   vk45j4qhfkv0xz4j
# 
# Begin patch
=== modified file 'src/ChangeLog'
--- src/ChangeLog       2011-04-19 10:48:30 +0000
+++ src/ChangeLog       2011-04-20 06:24:51 +0000
@@ -1,3 +1,28 @@
+2011-04-20  Paul Eggert  <address@hidden>
+
+       Make the Lisp reader and string-to-float more consistent.
+       * data.c (atof): Remove decl; no longer used or needed.
+       (Fstring_to_number): Use new string_to_float function, to be
+       consistent with how the Lisp reader treats infinities and NaNs.
+       Do not assume that floating-point numbers represent EMACS_INT
+       without losing information; this is not true on most 64-bit hosts.
+       Avoid double-rounding errors, by insisting on integers when
+       parsing non-base-10 numbers, as the documentation specifies.
+       Report integer overflow instead of silently converting to
+       integers.
+       * lisp.h (string_to_float): New decl, replacing ...
+       (isfloat_string): Remove.
+       * lread.c (read1): Do not accept +. and -. as integers; this
+       appears to have been a coding error.  Similarly, do not accept
+       strings like +-1e0 as floating point numbers.  Do not report
+       overflow for some integer overflows and not others; instead,
+       report them all.  Break out the floating-point parsing into a new
+       function string_to_float, so that Fstring_to_number parses
+       floating point numbers consistently with the Lisp reader.
+       (string_to_float): New function, replacing isfloat_string.
+       This function checks for valid syntax and produces the resulting
+       Lisp float number too.
+
 2011-04-19  Eli Zaretskii  <address@hidden>
 
        * syntax.h (SETUP_SYNTAX_TABLE_FOR_OBJECT): Fix setting of

=== modified file 'src/data.c'
--- src/data.c  2011-04-16 21:48:36 +0000
+++ src/data.c  2011-04-20 06:24:51 +0000
@@ -48,10 +48,6 @@
 
 #include <math.h>
 
-#if !defined (atof)
-extern double atof (const char *);
-#endif /* !atof */
-
 Lisp_Object Qnil, Qt, Qquote, Qlambda, Qunbound;
 static Lisp_Object Qsubr;
 Lisp_Object Qerror_conditions, Qerror_message, Qtop_level;
@@ -2415,8 +2411,7 @@
 {
   register char *p;
   register int b;
-  int sign = 1;
-  Lisp_Object val;
+  EMACS_INT n;
 
   CHECK_STRING (string);
 
@@ -2430,38 +2425,23 @@
        xsignal1 (Qargs_out_of_range, base);
     }
 
-  /* Skip any whitespace at the front of the number.  Some versions of
-     atoi do this anyway, so we might as well make Emacs lisp consistent.  */
+  /* Skip any whitespace at the front of the number.  Typically strtol does
+     this anyway, so we might as well be consistent.  */
   p = SSDATA (string);
   while (*p == ' ' || *p == '\t')
     p++;
 
-  if (*p == '-')
-    {
-      sign = -1;
-      p++;
-    }
-  else if (*p == '+')
-    p++;
-
-  if (isfloat_string (p, 1) && b == 10)
-    val = make_float (sign * atof (p));
-  else
-    {
-      double v = 0;
-
-      while (1)
-       {
-         int digit = digit_to_number (*p++, b);
-         if (digit < 0)
-           break;
-         v = v * b + digit;
-       }
-
-      val = make_fixnum_or_float (sign * v);
-    }
-
-  return val;
+  if (b == 10)
+    {
+      Lisp_Object val = string_to_float (p, 1);
+      if (FLOATP (val))
+       return val;
+    }
+
+  n = strtol (p, NULL, b);
+  if (FIXNUM_OVERFLOW_P (n))
+    xsignal (Qoverflow_error, list1 (string));
+  return make_number (n);
 }
 
 

=== modified file 'src/lisp.h'
--- src/lisp.h  2011-04-15 08:22:34 +0000
+++ src/lisp.h  2011-04-20 06:24:51 +0000
@@ -2782,7 +2782,7 @@
   } while (0)
 extern int openp (Lisp_Object, Lisp_Object, Lisp_Object,
                   Lisp_Object *, Lisp_Object);
-extern int isfloat_string (const char *, int);
+Lisp_Object string_to_float (char const *, int);
 extern void map_obarray (Lisp_Object, void (*) (Lisp_Object, Lisp_Object),
                          Lisp_Object);
 extern void dir_warning (const char *, Lisp_Object);

=== modified file 'src/lread.c'
--- src/lread.c 2011-04-14 05:04:02 +0000
+++ src/lread.c 2011-04-20 06:24:51 +0000
@@ -3006,85 +3006,32 @@
        if (!quoted && !uninterned_symbol)
          {
            register char *p1;
+           Lisp_Object result;
            p1 = read_buffer;
            if (*p1 == '+' || *p1 == '-') p1++;
            /* Is it an integer? */
-           if (p1 != p)
+           if ('0' <= *p1 && *p1 <= '9')
              {
-               while (p1 != p && (c = *p1) >= '0' && c <= '9') p1++;
+               do
+                 p1++;
+               while ('0' <= *p1 && *p1 <= '9');
+
                /* Integers can have trailing decimal points.  */
-               if (p1 > read_buffer && p1 < p && *p1 == '.') p1++;
+               p1 += (*p1 == '.');
                if (p1 == p)
-                 /* It is an integer. */
-                 {
-                   if (p1[-1] == '.')
-                     p1[-1] = '\0';
-                   {
-                     /* EMACS_INT n = atol (read_buffer); */
-                     char *endptr = NULL;
-                     EMACS_INT n = (errno = 0,
-                                    strtol (read_buffer, &endptr, 10));
-                     if (errno == ERANGE && endptr)
-                       {
-                         Lisp_Object args
-                           = Fcons (make_string (read_buffer,
-                                                 endptr - read_buffer),
-                                    Qnil);
-                         xsignal (Qoverflow_error, args);
-                       }
-                     return make_fixnum_or_float (n);
-                   }
-                 }
-             }
-           if (isfloat_string (read_buffer, 0))
-             {
-               /* Compute NaN and infinities using 0.0 in a variable,
-                  to cope with compilers that think they are smarter
-                  than we are.  */
-               double zero = 0.0;
-
-               double value;
-
-               /* Negate the value ourselves.  This treats 0, NaNs,
-                  and infinity properly on IEEE floating point hosts,
-                  and works around a common bug where atof ("-0.0")
-                  drops the sign.  */
-               int negative = read_buffer[0] == '-';
-
-               /* The only way p[-1] can be 'F' or 'N', after isfloat_string
-                  returns 1, is if the input ends in e+INF or e+NaN.  */
-               switch (p[-1])
-                 {
-                 case 'F':
-                   value = 1.0 / zero;
-                   break;
-                 case 'N':
-                   value = zero / zero;
-
-                   /* If that made a "negative" NaN, negate it.  */
-
-                   {
-                     int i;
-                     union { double d; char c[sizeof (double)]; } u_data, 
u_minus_zero;
-
-                     u_data.d = value;
-                     u_minus_zero.d = - 0.0;
-                     for (i = 0; i < sizeof (double); i++)
-                       if (u_data.c[i] & u_minus_zero.c[i])
-                         {
-                           value = - value;
-                           break;
-                         }
-                   }
-                   /* Now VALUE is a positive NaN.  */
-                   break;
-                 default:
-                   value = atof (read_buffer + negative);
-                   break;
-                 }
-
-               return make_float (negative ? - value : value);
-             }
+                 {
+                   /* It is an integer. */
+                   EMACS_INT n = strtol (read_buffer, NULL, 10);
+                   if (FIXNUM_OVERFLOW_P (n))
+                     xsignal (Qoverflow_error,
+                              list1 (build_string (read_buffer)));
+                   return make_number (n);
+                 }
+             }
+
+           result = string_to_float (read_buffer, 0);
+           if (FLOATP (result))
+             return result;
          }
        {
          Lisp_Object name, result;
@@ -3242,20 +3189,40 @@
 }
 
 
+/* Return the length of the floating-point number that is the prefix of CP, or
+   zero if there is none.  */
+
 #define LEAD_INT 1
 #define DOT_CHAR 2
 #define TRAIL_INT 4
 #define E_CHAR 8
 #define EXP_INT 16
 
-int
-isfloat_string (const char *cp, int ignore_trailing)
+
+/* Convert CP to a floating point number.  Return a non-float value if CP does
+   not have valid floating point syntax.  If IGNORE_TRAILING is nonzero,
+   consider just the longest prefix of CP that has valid floating point
+   syntax.  */
+
+Lisp_Object
+string_to_float (char const *cp, int ignore_trailing)
 {
   int state;
   const char *start = cp;
 
+  /* Compute NaN and infinities using a variable, to cope with compilers that
+     think they are smarter than we are.  */
+  double zero = 0;
+
+  /* Negate the value ourselves.  This treats 0, NaNs, and infinity properly on
+     IEEE floating point hosts, and works around a formerly-common bug where
+     atof ("-0.0") drops the sign.  */
+  int negative = *cp == '-';
+
+  double value = 0;
+
   state = 0;
-  if (*cp == '+' || *cp == '-')
+  if (negative || *cp == '+')
     cp++;
 
   if (*cp >= '0' && *cp <= '9')
@@ -3295,21 +3262,43 @@
     {
       state |= EXP_INT;
       cp += 3;
+      value = 1.0 / zero;
     }
   else if (cp[-1] == '+' && cp[0] == 'N' && cp[1] == 'a' && cp[2] == 'N')
     {
       state |= EXP_INT;
       cp += 3;
+      value = zero / zero;
+
+      /* If that made a "negative" NaN, negate it.  */
+      {
+       int i;
+       union { double d; char c[sizeof (double)]; } u_data, u_minus_zero;
+
+       u_data.d = value;
+       u_minus_zero.d = - 0.0;
+       for (i = 0; i < sizeof (double); i++)
+         if (u_data.c[i] & u_minus_zero.c[i])
+           {
+             value = - value;
+             break;
+           }
+      }
+      /* Now VALUE is a positive NaN.  */
     }
 
-  return ((ignore_trailing
-          || *cp == 0 || *cp == ' ' || *cp == '\t' || *cp == '\n'
-          || *cp == '\r' || *cp == '\f')
-         && (state == (LEAD_INT|DOT_CHAR|TRAIL_INT)
-             || state == (DOT_CHAR|TRAIL_INT)
-             || state == (LEAD_INT|E_CHAR|EXP_INT)
-             || state == (LEAD_INT|DOT_CHAR|TRAIL_INT|E_CHAR|EXP_INT)
-             || state == (DOT_CHAR|TRAIL_INT|E_CHAR|EXP_INT)));
+  if (! (state == (LEAD_INT|DOT_CHAR|TRAIL_INT)
+        || state == (DOT_CHAR|TRAIL_INT)
+        || state == (LEAD_INT|E_CHAR|EXP_INT)
+        || state == (LEAD_INT|DOT_CHAR|TRAIL_INT|E_CHAR|EXP_INT)
+        || state == (DOT_CHAR|TRAIL_INT|E_CHAR|EXP_INT)))
+    return make_number (0); /* Any non-float value will do.  */
+
+  if (! value)
+    value = atof (start + negative);
+  if (negative)
+    value = - value;
+  return make_float (value);
 }
 
 

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