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Re: libobjc2 & arc & multithreading


From: Andreas Fink
Subject: Re: libobjc2 & arc & multithreading
Date: Mon, 27 Nov 2017 23:38:19 +0100

I will give it a throughout test the coming days...

> On 27 Nov 2017, at 18:33, David Chisnall <address@hidden> wrote:
> 
> On 27 Nov 2017, at 09:03, David Chisnall <address@hidden> wrote:
>> 
>> The other thing that would probably make a bigger difference is to use a bit 
>> in the refcount to indicate whether an object has any weak references at 
>> all.  This would allow us to completely avoid having the lock.  
> 
> The attached patch should improve things a lot for you.  Please can you test 
> it and report back?  I’m a bit hesitant to commit it without feedback, 
> because there aren’t any multithreaded tests in the libobjc2 test suite and 
> it’s possible that I’ve managed to introduce a subtle race condition.
> 
> David
> 
> diff --git a/arc.m b/arc.m
> index b7a3b3b..24f8b7c 100644
> --- a/arc.m
> +++ b/arc.m
> @@ -1,4 +1,5 @@
> #include <stdlib.h>
> +#include <stdbool.h>
> #include <assert.h>
> #import "stdio.h"
> #import "objc/runtime.h"
> @@ -163,6 +164,17 @@ extern BOOL FastARCAutorelease;
> 
> static BOOL useARCAutoreleasePool;
> 
> +/**
> + * We use the top bit of the reference count to indicate whether an object 
> has
> + * ever had a weak reference taken.  This lets us avoid acquiring the weak
> + * table lock for most objects on deallocation.
> + */
> +static const long weak_mask = ((size_t)1)<<((sizeof(size_t)*8)-1);
> +/**
> + * All of the bits other than the top bit are the real reference count.
> + */
> +static const long refcount_mask = ~weak_mask;
> +
> static inline id retain(id obj)
> {
>       if (isSmallObject(obj)) { return obj; }
> @@ -174,14 +186,40 @@ static inline id retain(id obj)
>       }
>       if (objc_test_class_flag(cls, objc_class_flag_fast_arc))
>       {
> -             intptr_t *refCount = ((intptr_t*)obj) - 1;
> -             // Note: this should be an atomic read, so that a sufficiently 
> clever
> -             // compiler doesn't notice that there's no happens-before 
> relationship
> -             // here.
> -             if (*refCount >= 0)
> -             {
> -                     __sync_add_and_fetch(refCount, 1);
> -             }
> +             uintptr_t *refCount = ((uintptr_t*)obj) - 1;
> +             uintptr_t refCountVal = __sync_fetch_and_add(refCount, 0);
> +             uintptr_t newVal = refCountVal;
> +             do {
> +                     refCountVal = newVal;
> +                     long realCount = refCountVal & refcount_mask;
> +                     // If this object's reference count is already less 
> than 0, then
> +                     // this is a spurious retain.  This can happen when one 
> thread is
> +                     // attempting to acquire a strong reference from a weak 
> reference
> +                     // and the other thread is attempting to destroy it.  
> The
> +                     // deallocating thread will decrement the reference 
> count with no
> +                     // locks held and will then acquire the weak ref table 
> lock and
> +                     // attempt to zero the weak references.  The caller of 
> this will be
> +                     // `objc_loadWeakRetained`, which will also hold the 
> lock.  If the
> +                     // serialisation is such that the locked retain happens 
> after the
> +                     // decrement, then we return nil here so that the 
> weak-to-strong
> +                     // transition doesn't happen and the object is actually 
> destroyed.
> +                     // If the serialisation happens the other way, then the 
> locked
> +                     // check of the reference count will happen after we've 
> referenced
> +                     // this and we don't zero the references or deallocate.
> +                     if (realCount < 0)
> +                     {
> +                             return nil;
> +                     }
> +                     // If the reference count is saturated, don't increment 
> it.
> +                     if (realCount == refcount_mask)
> +                     {
> +                             return obj;
> +                     }
> +                     realCount++;
> +                     realCount |= refCountVal & weak_mask;
> +                     uintptr_t updated = (uintptr_t)realCount;
> +                     newVal = __sync_val_compare_and_swap(refCount, 
> refCountVal, updated);
> +             } while (newVal != refCountVal);
>               return obj;
>       }
>       return [obj retain];
> @@ -203,12 +241,37 @@ static inline void release(id obj)
>       }
>       if (objc_test_class_flag(cls, objc_class_flag_fast_arc))
>       {
> -             intptr_t *refCount = ((intptr_t*)obj) - 1;
> +             uintptr_t *refCount = ((uintptr_t*)obj) - 1;
> +             uintptr_t refCountVal = __sync_fetch_and_add(refCount, 0);
> +             uintptr_t newVal = refCountVal;
> +             bool isWeak;
> +             bool shouldFree;
> +             do {
> +                     refCountVal = newVal;
> +                     size_t realCount = refCountVal & refcount_mask;
> +                     // If the reference count is saturated, don't decrement 
> it.
> +                     if (realCount == refcount_mask)
> +                     {
> +                             return;
> +                     }
> +                     realCount--;
> +                     isWeak = (refCountVal & weak_mask) == weak_mask;
> +                     shouldFree = realCount == -1;
> +                     realCount |= refCountVal & weak_mask;
> +                     uintptr_t updated = (uintptr_t)realCount;
> +                     newVal = __sync_val_compare_and_swap(refCount, 
> refCountVal, updated);
> +             } while (newVal != refCountVal);
>               // We allow refcounts to run into the negative, but should only
>               // deallocate once.
> -             if (__sync_sub_and_fetch(refCount, 1) == -1)
> +             if (shouldFree)
>               {
> -                     objc_delete_weak_refs(obj);
> +                     if (isWeak)
> +                     {
> +                             if (!objc_delete_weak_refs(obj))
> +                             {
> +                                     return;
> +                             }
> +                     }
>                       [obj dealloc];
>               }
>               return;
> @@ -524,6 +587,7 @@ void* block_load_weak(void *block);
> 
> id objc_storeWeak(id *addr, id obj)
> {
> +     LOCK_FOR_SCOPE(&weakRefLock);
>       id old = *addr;
> 
>       BOOL isGlobalObject = (obj == nil) || isSmallObject(obj);
> @@ -538,16 +602,44 @@ id objc_storeWeak(id *addr, id obj)
>                       isGlobalObject = YES;
>               }
>       }
> -     if (cls && objc_test_class_flag(cls, objc_class_flag_fast_arc))
> +     if (obj && cls && objc_test_class_flag(cls, objc_class_flag_fast_arc))
>       {
> -             intptr_t *refCount = ((intptr_t*)obj) - 1;
> -             if (obj && *refCount < 0)
> +             uintptr_t *refCount = ((uintptr_t*)obj) - 1;
> +             if (obj)
>               {
> -                     obj = nil;
> -                     cls = Nil;
> +                     uintptr_t refCountVal = __sync_fetch_and_add(refCount, 
> 0);
> +                     uintptr_t newVal = refCountVal;
> +                     do {
> +                             refCountVal = newVal;
> +                             long realCount = refCountVal & refcount_mask;
> +                             // If this object has already been deallocated 
> (or is in the
> +                             // process of being deallocated) then don't 
> bother storing it.
> +                             if (realCount < 0)
> +                             {
> +                                     obj = nil;
> +                                     cls = Nil;
> +                                     break;
> +                             }
> +                             // The weak ref flag is monotonic (it is set, 
> never cleared) so
> +                             // don't bother trying to re-set it.
> +                             if ((refCountVal & weak_mask) == weak_mask)
> +                             {
> +                                     break;
> +                             }
> +                             // Set the flag in the reference count to 
> indicate that a weak
> +                             // reference has been taken.
> +                             //
> +                             // We currently hold the weak ref lock, so 
> another thread
> +                             // racing to deallocate this object will have 
> to wait to do so
> +                             // if we manage to do the reference count 
> update first.  This
> +                             // shouldn't be possible, because `obj` should 
> be a strong
> +                             // reference and so it shouldn't be possible to 
> deallocate it
> +                             // while we're assigning it.
> +                             uintptr_t updated = ((uintptr_t)realCount | 
> weak_mask);
> +                             newVal = __sync_val_compare_and_swap(refCount, 
> refCountVal, updated);
> +                     } while (newVal != refCountVal);
>               }
>       }
> -     LOCK_FOR_SCOPE(&weakRefLock);
>       if (nil != old)
>       {
>               WeakRef *oldRef = weak_ref_table_get(weakRefs, old);
> @@ -583,7 +675,8 @@ id objc_storeWeak(id *addr, id obj)
>       }
>       else if (objc_test_class_flag(cls, objc_class_flag_fast_arc))
>       {
> -             if ((*(((intptr_t*)obj) - 1)) < 0)
> +             uintptr_t *refCount = ((uintptr_t*)obj) - 1;
> +             if ((long)((__sync_fetch_and_add(refCount, 0) & refcount_mask)) 
> < 0)
>               {
>                       return nil;
>               }
> @@ -648,20 +741,38 @@ static void zeroRefs(WeakRef *ref, BOOL shouldFree)
>       }
> }
> 
> -void objc_delete_weak_refs(id obj)
> +BOOL objc_delete_weak_refs(id obj)
> {
>       LOCK_FOR_SCOPE(&weakRefLock);
> +     if (objc_test_class_flag(classForObject(obj), objc_class_flag_fast_arc))
> +     {
> +             // If another thread has done a load of a weak reference, then 
> it will
> +             // have incremented the reference count with the lock held.  It 
> may
> +             // have done so in between this thread's decrementing the 
> reference
> +             // count and its acquiring the lock.  In this case, report 
> failure.
> +             uintptr_t *refCount = ((uintptr_t*)obj) - 1;
> +             if ((long)((__sync_fetch_and_add(refCount, 0) & refcount_mask)) 
> < 0)
> +             {
> +                     return NO;
> +             }
> +     }
>       WeakRef *oldRef = weak_ref_table_get(weakRefs, obj);
>       if (0 != oldRef)
>       {
>               zeroRefs(oldRef, NO);
>               weak_ref_remove(weakRefs, obj);
>       }
> +     return YES;
> }
> 
> id objc_loadWeakRetained(id* addr)
> {
>       LOCK_FOR_SCOPE(&weakRefLock);
> +     // *addr can only be zeroed by another thread if it holds the 
> weakRefLock.
> +     // It is possible for another thread to zero the reference count here, 
> but
> +     // it will then acquire the weak ref lock prior to zeroing the weak
> +     // references and deallocating the object.  If this thread has 
> incremented
> +     // the reference count, then it will skip deallocating.
>       id obj = *addr;
>       if (nil == obj) { return nil; }
>       // Small objects don't need reference count modification
> @@ -674,14 +785,7 @@ id objc_loadWeakRetained(id* addr)
>       {
>               obj = block_load_weak(obj);
>       }
> -     else if (objc_test_class_flag(cls, objc_class_flag_fast_arc))
> -     {
> -             if ((*(((intptr_t*)obj) - 1)) < 0)
> -             {
> -                     return nil;
> -             }
> -     }
> -     else
> +     else if (!objc_test_class_flag(cls, objc_class_flag_fast_arc))
>       {
>               obj = _objc_weak_load(obj);
>       }
> diff --git a/objc/objc-arc.h b/objc/objc-arc.h
> index 0da4030..203cfef 100644
> --- a/objc/objc-arc.h
> +++ b/objc/objc-arc.h
> @@ -94,9 +94,11 @@ void objc_release(id obj);
>  * weak pointers will return 0.  This function should be called in -release,
>  * before calling [self dealloc].
>  *
> + * This will return `YES` if the weak references were deleted, `NO` 
> otherwise.
> + *
>  * Nonstandard extension.
>  */
> -void objc_delete_weak_refs(id obj);
> +BOOL objc_delete_weak_refs(id obj);
> /**
>  * Returns the total number of objects in the ARC-managed autorelease pool.
>  */
> 





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