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Re: [Emacs-diffs] master 9ce1d38: Use curved quotes in core elisp diagno

From: Paul Eggert
Subject: Re: [Emacs-diffs] master 9ce1d38: Use curved quotes in core elisp diagnostics
Date: Thu, 27 Aug 2015 10:16:18 -0700
User-agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:38.0) Gecko/20100101 Thunderbird/38.2.0

Richard Stallman wrote:

   > https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:I_littera_in_manuscripto.jpg

Where could I find an explanation of those symbols?
(I even can't see what they are, in that image.)

That fragment is old Roman cursive. Most (but not all) those symbols are Latin letters expressible in ASCII. Here's a text transliteration:

  uobis · ujdetur · p · c · decernám
  prólátis · rebus ijs · júdicibus · n
  imponátur quj · jntrá rerum
  jncoháta · judicia · non · per
  defuturas · ignoro · fraudes · m
  multas · aduersus · quas · exc

The "·" is an interpunct; it separates words, and some would write "·" rather than " · " when transcribing. The accent over some vowels is an apex, and indicates that the vowel is long. The transliteration uses Unicode acute accents for apices, which is standard practice nowadays, as the Unicode doesn't have apices and the acute accent is the modern descendant of the apex.

You can find a longer discussion of this topic here:


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