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tstree.el -- ternary search trees
From: |
Toby Cubitt |
Subject: |
tstree.el -- ternary search trees |
Date: |
Sun, 30 Apr 2006 20:07:34 +0200 |
User-agent: |
Mutt/1.5.11 |
;;; tstree.el --- ternary search tree package
;; Copyright (C) 2004-2006 Toby Cubitt
;; Author: Toby Cubitt <address@hidden>
;; Version: 0.5.1
;; Keywords: ternary search tree, tstree
;; URL: http://www.dr-qubit.org/emacs.php
;; This file is NOT part of Emacs.
;;
;; This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
;; modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
;; as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
;; of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
;;
;; This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
;; but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
;; MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
;; GNU General Public License for more details.
;; You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
;; along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
;; Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston,
;; MA 02110-1301, USA.
;;; Commentary:
;;
;; A ternary search tree stores data associated with "strings" (not
;; necessarily the string data type; any ordered sequence of elements
;; in a vector is also valid). It stores them in such a way that both
;; storage size and data lookup are reasonably space- and
;; time-efficient, respectively. But more importantly, returning all
;; strings with a given prefix in alphabetical or any other sort-order
;; is also time-efficient.
;;
;; A ternary search tree consists of two cons cells, the first one
;; holding the tag 'TSTREE in the car cell and the second one having
;; the tree in the car and the compare function in the cdr cell. The
;; compare function must take two arguments of the type which is to
;; be stored in the tree and must return a negative value if the
;; first argument is "less than" the second, a positive value if the
;; first argument is "greater than" the second, and zero if the two
;; arguments are "equal".
;;
;; This package uses the ternary heap package heap.el.
;;; Change Log:
;;
;; Version 0.5.1
;; * added more commentary
;;
;; Version 0.5
;; * completion functions now return lists instead of vectors
;;
;; Version 0.4
;; * removed elib dependency by replacing elib stacks with lists
;;
;; Version 0.3
;; * added `tstree-mapcar' macro
;;
;; Version 0.2.1
;; * fixed bug in `tstree-map' so it doesn't error on empty trees
;;
;; Version 0.2
;; * added `tstree-map' function
;;
;; Version 0.1
;; * initial release
;;; Code:
(provide 'tstree)
;;(require 'stack-m)
(require 'heap)
;; the only common lisp function that's used is `signum', so this dependency
;; should probably be removed
(require 'cl)
;;; ================================================================
;;; Internal functions for use in the ternary search tree package
(defmacro tst-tree-root (tree) ; INTERNAL USE ONLY.
;; Return the root node for a ternary search tree.
`(tst-node-equal (car (cdr ,tree)))
)
(defmacro tst-tree-dummyroot (tree) ; INTERNAL USE ONLY.
;; Return the dummy node of a ternary search tree.
`(car (cdr ,tree))
)
(defmacro tst-tree-cmpfun (tree) ; INTERNAL USE ONLY.
;; Return the compare function of ternary search tree TREE.
`(car (cdr (cdr ,tree)))
)
(defmacro tst-tree-insfun (tree) ; INTERNAL USE ONLY.
;; Return the insert function of ternary search tree TREE.
`(car (cdr (cdr (cdr ,tree))))
)
(defmacro tst-tree-rankfun (tree) ; INTERNAL USE ONLY
;; Return the rank function of ternary search tree TREE.
`(cdr (cdr (cdr (cdr ,tree))))
)
(defmacro tst-node-create (low equal high split) ; INTERNAL USE ONLY.
;; Create a TST node from LOW, EQUAL, HIGH and SPLIT.
;; Note: If SPLIT is nil, EQUAL stores data rather than a pointer
`(vector ,low ,equal ,high ,split)
)
(defmacro tst-node-p (obj) ; INTERNAL USE ONLY
;; Return t if OBJ is a valid ternary search tree node, nil
;; otherwise.
`(and (vectorp ,obj) (= (length ,obj) 4))
)
(defmacro tst-node-low (node) ; INTERNAL USE ONLY.
;; Return the low pointer of NODE.
`(aref ,node 0)
)
(defmacro tst-node-equal (node) ; INTERNAL USE ONLY.
;; Return the equal pointer of NODE.
`(aref ,node 1)
)
(defmacro tst-node-high (node) ; INTERNAL USE ONLY.
;; Return the high pointer of NODE.
`(aref ,node 2)
)
(defmacro tst-node-split (node) ; INTERNAL USE ONLY.
;; Return the split value of NODE.
`(aref ,node 3)
)
(defmacro tst-node-branch (node d) ; INTERNAL USE ONLY.
;; For D negative, zero, or positive, return the low, equal or high
;; pointer of NODE respectively.
`(aref ,node (1+ (signum ,d)))
)
(defmacro tst-node-set-high (node newhigh) ; INTERNAL USE ONLY.
;; Set the high pointer of NODE to NEWHIGH
`(aset ,node 0 ,newhigh)
)
(defmacro tst-node-set-equal (node newequal) ; INTERNAL USE ONLY.
;; Set the equal pointer of NODE to NEWEQUAL
`(aset ,node 1 ,newequal)
)
(defmacro tst-node-set-low (node newlow) ; INTERNAL USE ONLY.
;; Set the low pointer of NODE to NEWLOW
`(aset ,node 2 ,newlow)
)
(defmacro tst-node-set-split (node newsplit) ; INTERNAL USE ONLY.
;; Set the split value of NODE to NEWSPLIT
`(aset ,node 3 ,newsplit)
)
(defmacro tst-node-set-branch (node d newbranch) ; INTERNAL USE ONLY.
;; If D is negative, zero or positive, set the high, equal or low
;; value respectively of NODE to NEWBRANCH.
`(aset ,node (1+ (signum ,d)) ,newbranch)
)
(defun tst-node-find (tree string) ; INTERNAL USE ONLY
;; Returns the node corresponding to STRING, or nil if none found.
(cond
;; don't search for nil!
((null string) nil)
;; return root node if searching for an empty string
((= 0 (length string)) (tst-tree-root tree))
;; otherwise search for node corresponding to string
(t (let ((cmpfun (tst-tree-cmpfun tree))
(node (tst-tree-root tree))
(c 0) (chr (aref string 0)) (d 0)
(len (length string)))
;; as long as we keep finding nodes, keep descending the tree
(while (and node (< c len))
(setq d (funcall cmpfun chr (tst-node-split node)))
(if (= 0 d)
(when (< (setq c (1+ c)) len) (setq chr (aref string c))))
(setq node (tst-node-branch node d)))
node))
)
)
;;; ================================================================
;;; The public functions which operate on ternary search trees.
(defun tstree-create (&optional compare-function insert-function
rank-function)
"Create an empty ternary search tree. If no arguments are
supplied, it creates a tree suitable for storing strings with
numerical data.
The optional COMPARE-FUNCTION sets the comparison function for
the tree. COMPARE-FUNCTION takes two arguments, A and B, and
returns a negative value if A is less than B, zero if A is equal
to B, and a positive value if A is greater than B. It defaults to
subtraction.
The optional INSERT-FUNCTION takes two arguments of the type
stored as data in the tree or nil, and returns the same type. It
defaults to \"replace\". See `tstree-insert'.
The optional RANK-FUNCTION takes two arguments, each a cons whose
car is an array (vector or string) referencing data in the tree,
and whose cdr is the data at that reference. It should return
non-nil if the first argument is \"better than\" the second, nil
otherwise. It defaults to numerical comparison of the data using
\"greater than\". Used by `tstree-complete-ordered' to rank
completions."
;; comparison-function defaults to -
(let* ((cmpfun (when compare-function compare-function '-))
;; the lambda expression redefines the compare funtion to ensure that
;; all values other than nil are "greater" than nil
(cmpfun `(lambda (a b)
(cond ((and (null a) (null b)) 0) ((null a) -1)
((null b) 1) (t (,cmpfun a b)))))
;; insert-function defaults to "replace".
(insfun (if insert-function insert-function (lambda (a b) a)))
;; rank function defaults to >
(rankfun (if rank-function rank-function
(lambda (a b) (> (cdr a) (cdr b))))))
(cons 'TSTREE
(cons (tst-node-create nil nil nil t)
(cons cmpfun
(cons insfun rankfun))))
)
)
(defun tstree-p (obj)
"Return t if OBJ is a ternary search tree, nil otherwise."
(eq (car-safe obj) 'TSTREE)
)
(defun tstree-compare-function (tree)
"Return the comparison function for the ternary search tree TREE."
(tst-tree-cmpfun tree)
)
(defun tstree-insert-function (tree)
"Return the insertion function for the ternary search tree TREE."
(tst-tree-insfun tree)
)
(defun tstree-rank-function (tree)
"Return the rank function for the ternary seach tree TREE."
(tst-tree-rankfun tree)
)
(defun tstree-empty (tree)
"Return t if the ternary search tree TREE is empty, nil otherwise."
(null (tst-tree-root tree))
)
(defun tstree-insert (tree string &optional data insert-function)
"Calculate the result of applying the tree TREE's insetion function to DATA
and the existing data at position STRING in the tree (or nil if empty), and
insert the result into the ternary search tree at the position referenced by
STRING. STRING must be an array (vector or string) containing the type used to
reference data in the tree.
The optional INSERT-FUNCTION over-rides the tree's own insertion function. It
should take two arguments of the type stored as data in the tree, or nil. The
first is the data DATA, the second is the data stored at position STRING in
the tree, or nil if STRING doesn't yet exist. It should return the same
type. The return value is stored in the tree."
;; don't add empty strings to the tree
(if (= 0 (length string)) nil
(let ((cmpfun (tst-tree-cmpfun tree))
(insfun (if insert-function insert-function (tst-tree-insfun tree)))
(node (tst-tree-dummyroot tree))
(c 0) (chr (aref string 0)) (d 0)
(len (length string)) newdata)
;; as long as we keep finding nodes, keep descending the tree
(while (and node (tst-node-branch node d))
(setq node (tst-node-branch node d))
(setq d (funcall cmpfun chr (tst-node-split node)))
(when (= 0 d)
(if (< (setq c (1+ c)) len)
(setq chr (aref string c))
;; if complete string already exists in the tree and
;; we've found the data node, insert new data
(if (tst-node-split node)
(setq chr nil) ; not at data node so keep descending
(tst-node-set-equal
node (setq newdata
(funcall insfun data (tst-node-equal node))))
(setq node nil))))) ; forces loop to exit
;; once we've found one node that doesn't exist, must create all others
(while node
;; create nodes for remainder of string, if any
(if (< c len)
(progn
(setq chr (aref string c))
(tst-node-set-branch node d (tst-node-create nil nil nil chr))
(setq node (tst-node-branch node d))
(setq d 0)
(setq c (1+ c)))
;; if we've reached end of string, create data node and exit
(tst-node-set-branch
node d (tst-node-create
nil (setq newdata (funcall insfun data nil)) nil nil))
(setq node nil))) ; fores loop to exit
;; return the newly inserted data
newdata)
)
)
(defun tstree-member (tree string)
"Return the data referenced by STRING from the tree TREE, or nil if
STRING does not exist in the tree. Note: this will not distinguish
between a non-existant STRING and a STRING whose data is nil. Use
`tstree-member-p' instead."
;; Find first node corresponding to STRING
(let ((node (tst-node-find tree string)))
;; Keep following the low branch until we find the data node, or
;; can't go any further.
(while (tst-node-p node)
(setq node (if (tst-node-split node) (tst-node-low node)
(tst-node-equal node))))
node)
)
(defun tstree-member-p (tree string)
"Return t if STRING is in tree TREE, nil otherwise."
(let ((node (tst-node-find tree string)))
(while (tst-node-p node)
(setq node (if (tst-node-split node) (tst-node-low node)
(setq node t))))
node)
)
;; Deleting strings from a ternary search tree is a messy
;; operation. Basically, either the tree has to be left with redundant
;; nodes and probably nodes with nil equal children, or the sub-tree
;; below the string needs to be restructured.
;;
;; Possible solutions are either to leave the tree in a mess, or delete
;; the entire sub-tree then add the strings it contained back
;; again. Both are undesirable: the former because it leaves the tree
;; with redundant nodes that apart from making the tree slightly
;; inefficient, might even cause errors when running functions; the
;; latter because it could potentially be very inefficient.
;;
;; The best option is probably to make sure you never need to delete
;; strings from the tree! Therefore I haven't bothered writing the
;; following function:
;;
;; (defun tstree-delete (tree string)
;; "Delete string STRING from tree TREE."
;; )
(defun tstree-map (function tree &optional string mapcar)
"Apply FUNTION to all elements in the ternary search tree TREE,
for side-effects only.
FUNCTION will be passed two arguments: an array referencing a
location in the tree, and its associated data. It is safe to
assume the tree will be traversed in \"lexical\" order (i.e. the
order defined by the tree's comparison function).
If the optional argument STRING is nil, the array passed to
FUNCTION will be a vector containing elements of the type used to
reference data in the tree. If STRING is non-nil, the array will
be a real string (this will cause an error if the type used to
reference the tree can not be converted to a string by the
`string' function).
\(If optional argument MAPCAR is non-nil, a list of results of
function calls is returned. Don't user this. Use the
`tstree-mapcar' macro instead\)."
;; only other doing something if tree is not empty
(when (tst-tree-root tree)
(let (stack str node result accumulate)
;; initialise the stack
(push (tst-tree-root tree) stack)
(if string (push "" stack) (push [] stack))
;; Keep going until we've traversed all nodes (node stack is empty)
(while (not (null stack))
(setq str (pop stack))
(setq node (pop stack))
;; add the high child to the stack, if it exists
(when (tst-node-high node)
(push (tst-node-high node) stack)
(push str stack))
;; If we're at a data node call FUNCTION, otherwise add the equal
;; child to the stack.
(if (null (tst-node-split node))
(progn
(setq result (funcall function str (tst-node-equal node)))
(when mapcar (setq accumulate (cons result accumulate))))
(push (tst-node-equal node) stack)
(push (if (stringp str)
(concat str (string (tst-node-split node)))
(vconcat str (vector (tst-node-split node))))
stack))
;; add the low child to the stack, if it exists
(when (tst-node-low node)
(push (tst-node-low node) stack)
(push str stack))
)
;; return accumulated list of results (nil if MAPCAR was nil)
(nreverse accumulate)))
)
(defmacro tstree-mapcar (function tree &optional string)
"Apply FUNTION to all elements in the ternary search tree TREE,
and make a list of the results.
FUNCTION will be passed two arguments: an array referencing a
location in the tree, and its associated data. It is safe to
assume the tree will be traversed in \"lexical\" order (i.e. the
order defined by the tree's comparison function).
If the optional argument STRING is nil, the array passed to
FUNCTION will be a vector containing elements of the type used to
reference data in the tree. If STRING is non-nil, the array will
be a real string (this will cause an error if the type used to
reference the tree can not be converted to a string by the
`string' function)."
`(tstree-map ,function ,tree ,string t))
(defun tstree-complete (tree string &optional maxnum all filter)
"Return an alist containing all completions of STRING found in
ternary searh tree TREE along with their associated data, in
\"lexical\" order (i.e. the order defined by the tree's
comparison function). If no completions are found, return nil.
STRING must either be an array (vector or string) containing
elements of the type used to reference data in the tree, or a
list of such arrays. (Thus if the tree stores real strings,
STRING can be a string or a list of strings.) If a list is
supplied, completions of all elements of the list are included in
the returned alist.
The optional numerical argument MAXNUM limits the results to the
first MAXNUM completions. If it is absent or nil, all completions
are returned.
Normally, only the remaining \"characters\" needed to complete
STRING are returned. If the optional argument ALL is non-nil, the
entire completion is returned.
The FILTER argument sets a filter function for the
completions. If supplied, it is called for each possible
completion with two arguments: the completion, and its associated
data. If the filter function returns nil, the completion is not
included in the results."
(let (stack completions)
;; ----- initialise the stack -----
(let ((strlist (if (listp string) (reverse (sort string 'string<))
(list string)))
str)
;; add initial nodes for each string in the string list
(while strlist
(setq str (pop strlist))
;; if completions exist, add initial node to the stack
(if (car (push (tst-node-find tree str) stack))
;; force entire completion to be returned if arg ALL was set
(if all (push str stack)
(if (stringp str) (push "" stack) (push [] stack)))
(pop stack)))
)
;; ----- search the tree -----
(let ((num 0) str node)
;; Keep going until we've searched all nodes (node stack is empty), or
;; have found enough completions.
(while (and (not (null stack)) (or (null maxnum) (< num maxnum)))
(setq str (pop stack))
(setq node (pop stack))
;; add the high child to the stack, if it exists
(when (tst-node-high node)
(push (tst-node-high node) stack)
(push str stack))
;; If we're at a data node, we've found a completion. Otherwise, add
;; the equal child to the stack.
(if (tst-node-split node)
(progn
(push (tst-node-equal node) stack)
(push (if (stringp str)
(concat str (string (tst-node-split node)))
(vconcat str (vector (tst-node-split node))))
stack))
;; If no filter was supplied, or the completion passes the filter,
;; add the completion to the list.
(when (or (null filter)
(funcall filter str (tst-node-equal node)))
(setq completions
(cons (cons str (tst-node-equal node)) completions))
(setq num (1+ num))))
;; add the low child to the stack, if it exists
(when (tst-node-low node)
(push (tst-node-low node) stack)
(push str stack))
))
;; return the list of completions
(nreverse completions))
)
(defun tstree-complete-ordered
(tree string &optional maxnum all rank-function filter)
"Return an alist containing all completions of STRING found in
ternary search tree TREE, along with their associated data. If no
completions are found, return nil.
Note that `tstree-complete' is significantly more efficient than
`tstree-complete-ordered', especially when a maximum number of
completions is specified. Always use `tstree-complete' when you
don't care about the ordering of the completions, or you need the
completions ordered \"alphabetically\".
TREE can also be a list of ternary search trees, in which case
completions are sought in all trees in the list.
STRING must either be an array (vector or string) containing
elements of the type used to reference data in the tree, or a
list of such arrays. (Thus if the tree stores real strings,
STRING can be a string or a list of strings.) If a list is
supplied, completions of all elements of the list are included in
the returned alist.
The optional numerical argument MAXNUM limits the results to the
\"best\" MAXNUM completions. If nil, all completions are
returned.
Normally, only the remaining \"characters\" needed to complete
STRING are returned. If the optional argument ALL is non-nil, the
entire completion is returned.
The optional argument RANK-FUNCTION over-rides the tree's default
rank function. It should take two arguments, each a cons whose
car is a vector referencing data in the tree, and whose cdr is
the data at that reference. It should return non-nil if the first
argument is \"better than\" the second, nil otherwise. The
elements of the returned alist are sorted according to this
rank-function, in descending order.
The FILTER argument sets a filter function for the
completions. If supplied, it is called for each possible
completion with two arguments: the completion, and its associated
data. If the filter function returns nil, the completion is not
included in the results."
(let* (stack heap completions)
;; ----- initialise the stack and heap -----
(let ((treelist (if (tstree-p tree) (list tree) tree))
strlist tmptree tmpstr rankfun)
;; create the heap using the rank-function from the first tree in the
;; list
(setq rankfun (if rank-function rank-function
(tst-tree-rankfun (car treelist))))
(setq heap (heap-create `(lambda (a b) (not (,rankfun a b)))))
;; add initial nodes from each tree.in the tree list
(while treelist
(setq tmptree (pop treelist))
(setq strlist (if (listp string) string (list string)))
;; ...and for each string in the string list
(while strlist
(setq tmpstr (pop strlist))
;; if completions exist, add initial node to the stack
(if (car (push (tst-node-find tmptree tmpstr) stack))
;; force entire completion to be returned if arg ALL was set
(if all (push tmpstr stack)
(push (if (stringp tmpstr) "" []) stack))
(pop stack))))
)
;; ------ search the tree -----
(let ((num 0) str node)
;; keep going until we've searched all nodes (node stack is empty)
(while (not (null stack))
(setq str (pop stack))
(setq node (pop stack))
;; add the high child to the stack, if it exists
(when (tst-node-high node)
(push (tst-node-high node) stack)
(push str stack))
;; If we're at a data node, we've found a completion. Otherwise, add
;; the equal child to the stack.
(if (tst-node-split node)
(progn
(push (tst-node-equal node) stack)
(push (if (stringp str)
(concat str (string (tst-node-split node)))
(vconcat str (vector (tst-node-split node))))
stack))
;; If no filter was supplied, or the completion passes the filter...
(when (or (null filter)
(funcall filter str (tst-node-equal node)))
;; ...add the completion to the heap. If we already have enough
;; completions, delete the worst one from the heap.
(heap-add heap (cons str (tst-node-equal node)))
(setq num (1+ num))
(when (and maxnum (> num maxnum)) (heap-delete-root heap))))
;; add the low child to the stack, if it exists
(when (tst-node-low node)
(push (tst-node-low node) stack)
(push str stack))
))
;; ----- create the completions vector -----
;; repeatedly transfer the worst completion left in the heap to the
;; front of the completions vector
(while (not (heap-empty heap))
(setq completions (cons (heap-delete-root heap) completions)))
;; return the list of completions
completions)
)
;;; tstree.el ends here
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