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[Guile-commits] 01/01: Letrectify only on -O2; update docs

From: Andy Wingo
Subject: [Guile-commits] 01/01: Letrectify only on -O2; update docs
Date: Sun, 25 Aug 2019 06:53:01 -0400 (EDT)

wingo pushed a commit to branch master
in repository guile.

commit 31cb10af81f78590dc7da530455aab38727dcc94
Author: Andy Wingo <address@hidden>
Date:   Sun Aug 25 12:51:03 2019 +0200

    Letrectify only on -O2; update docs
    * doc/ref/api-evaluation.texi (Compilation): Document the -O options.
    * doc/ref/api-modules.texi (Using Guile Modules): @@ docs refer to
      declarative modules.
      (Creating Guile Modules): Use when for 1-armed if.
      (Declarative Modules): Make implications of declarative bindings more
      explicit, and explicitly document ways to disable the optimization.
    * module/language/tree-il/optimize.scm (tree-il-optimizations): Punt
      letrectification to -O2.
 doc/ref/api-evaluation.texi          | 11 +++++
 doc/ref/api-modules.texi             | 84 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++---
 module/language/tree-il/optimize.scm |  7 ++-
 3 files changed, 96 insertions(+), 6 deletions(-)

diff --git a/doc/ref/api-evaluation.texi b/doc/ref/api-evaluation.texi
index cfae07f..bcebacf 100644
--- a/doc/ref/api-evaluation.texi
+++ b/doc/ref/api-evaluation.texi
@@ -675,6 +675,17 @@ warnings include @code{unused-variable}, 
 @code{arity-mismatch}, @code{format},
 @code{duplicate-case-datum}, and @code{bad-case-datum}.
+@item -O @var{opt}
+@itemx --optimize=@var{opt}
+@cindex optimizations, compiler
+Enable or disable specific compiler optimizations; use @code{-Ohelp} for
+a list of available options.  The default is @code{-O2}, which enables
+most optimizations.  @code{-O1} is recommended if compilation speed is
+more important than the speed of the compiled code.  Pass
+@code{-Ono-@var{opt}} to disable a specific compiler pass.  Any number
+of @code{-O} options can be passed to the compiler, with later ones
+taking precedence.
 @item -f @var{lang}
 @itemx --from=@var{lang}
 Use @var{lang} as the source language of @var{file}.  If this option is 
diff --git a/doc/ref/api-modules.texi b/doc/ref/api-modules.texi
index eb8cc1a..d73df46 100644
--- a/doc/ref/api-modules.texi
+++ b/doc/ref/api-modules.texi
@@ -240,7 +240,8 @@ Refer to the binding named @var{binding-name} in module
 Refer to the binding named @var{binding-name} in module
 @var{module-name}.  The binding must not have been exported by the
 module.  This syntax is only intended for debugging purposes or as a
-last resort.
+last resort.  @xref{Declarative Modules}, for some limitations on the
+use of @code{@@@@}.
 @end deffn
 @node Creating Guile Modules
@@ -290,8 +291,8 @@ example,
 (define-module (my mod)
   #:autoload (srfi srfi-1) (partition delete-duplicates))
-(if something
-    (set! foo (delete-duplicates ...)))
+(when something
+  (set! foo (delete-duplicates ...)))
 @end example
 When a module is autoloaded, all its bindings become available.
@@ -922,7 +923,7 @@ However, as Scheme godparent Mathias Felleisen wrote in 
``On the
 Expressive Power of Programming Languages'', a more expressive language
 is necessarily harder to reason about.  There are transformations that
 Guile's compiler would like to make which can't be done if every
-top-level binding is subject to mutation at any time.
+top-level definition is subject to mutation at any time.
 Consider this module:
@@ -946,6 +947,9 @@ text.  However, in the general case it could be that a 
programmer could
 reach into the @code{(boxes)} module at any time and change the value of
+@cindex declarative
+@cindex modules, declarative
+@cindex definitions, declarative
 To allow Guile to reason about the values of top-levels from a module, a
 module can be marked as @dfn{declarative}.  This flag applies only to
 the subset of top-level definitions that are themselves declarative:
@@ -965,7 +969,7 @@ By default, modules are compiled declaratively if the
 @code{user-modules-declarative?} parameter is true when the
 module is compiled.
-@deffn {Scheme Parameter} user-modules-declarative-by-default?
+@deffn {Scheme Parameter} user-modules-declarative?
 A boolean indicating whether definitions in modules created by
 @code{define-module} or implicitly as part of a compilation unit without
 an explicit module can be treated as declarative.
@@ -974,6 +978,76 @@ an explicit module can be treated as declarative.
 Because it's usually what you want, the default value of
 @code{user-modules-declarative?} is @code{#t}.
+@subsubheading Should I Mark My Module As Declarative?
+In the vast majority of use cases, declarative modules are what you
+want.  However, there are exceptions.
+Consider the @code{(boxes)} module above.  Let's say you want to be able
+to go in and change the definition of @code{box-set!} at run-time:
+scheme@@(guile-user)> (use-modules (boxes))
+scheme@@(guile-user)> ,module boxes
+scheme@@(boxes)> (define (box-set! x y) (set-car! x (pk y)))
+@end example
+However, considering that @code{(boxes)} is a declarative module, it
+could be that @code{box-swap!} inlined the call to @code{box-set!} -- so
+it may be that you are surprised if you call @code{(box-swap! x y)} and
+you don't see the new definition being used.  (Note, however, that Guile
+has no guarantees about what definitions its compiler will or will not
+If you want to allow the definition of @code{box-set!} to be changed and
+to have all of its uses updated, then probably the best option is to
+edit the module and reload the whole thing:
+scheme@@(guile-user)> ,reload (boxes)
+@end example
+The advantage of the reloading approach is that you maintain the
+optimizations that declarative modules enable, while also being able to
+live-update the code.  If the module keeps precious program state, those
+definitions can be marked as @code{define-once} to prevent reloads from
+overwriting them.  @xref{Top Level}, for more on @code{define-once}.
+Incidentally, @code{define-once} also prevents declarative-definition
+optimizations, so if there's a limited subset of redefinable bindings,
+@code{define-once} could be an interesting tool to mark those
+definitions as works-in-progress for interactive program development.
+To users, whether a module is declarative or not is mostly immaterial:
+besides normal use via @code{use-modules}, users can reference and
+redefine public or private bindings programmatically or interactively.
+The only difference is that changing a declarative definition may not
+change all of its uses.  If this use-case is important to you, and if
+reloading whole modules is insufficient, then you can mark all
+definitions in a module as non-declarative by adding
+@code{#:declarative? #f} to the module definition.
+The default of whether modules are declarative or not can be controlled
+via the @code{(user-modules-declarative?)} parameter mentioned above,
+but care should be taken to set this parameter when the modules are
+compiled, e.g. via @code{(eval-when (expand) (user-modules-declarative?
+#f))}.  @xref{Eval When}.
+Alternately you can prevent declarative-definition optimizations by
+compiling at the @code{-O1} optimization level instead of the default
+@code{-O2}, or via explicitly passing @code{-Ono-letrectify} to the
+@code{guild compile} invocation.  @xref{Compilation}, for more on
+compiler options.
+@cindex inlining
+One final note.  Currently, definitions from declarative modules can
+only be inlined within the module they are defined in, and within a
+compilation unit.  This may change in the future to allow Guile to
+inline imported declarative definitions as well (cross-module inlining).
+To Guile, whether a definition is inlinable or not is a property of the
+definition, not its use.  We hope to improve compiler tooling in the
+future to allow the user to identify definitions that are out of date
+when a declarative binding is redefined.
 @node Accessing Modules from C
 @subsection Accessing Modules from C
diff --git a/module/language/tree-il/optimize.scm 
index 2f89f73..c252e54 100644
--- a/module/language/tree-il/optimize.scm
+++ b/module/language/tree-il/optimize.scm
@@ -59,7 +59,12 @@
   ;; Avoid resolve-primitives until -O2, when CPS optimizations kick in.
   ;; Otherwise, inlining the primcalls during Tree-IL->CPS compilation
   ;; will result in a lot of code that will never get optimized nicely.
+  ;; Similarly letrectification is great for generated code quality, but
+  ;; as it gives the compiler more to work with, it increases compile
+  ;; time enough that we reserve it for -O2.  Also, this makes -O1 avoid
+  ;; assumptions about top-level values, in the same way that avoiding
+  ;; resolve-primitives does.
   '((#:resolve-primitives? 2)
     (#:expand-primitives? 1)
-    (#:letrectify? 1)
+    (#:letrectify? 2)
     (#:partial-eval? 1)))

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