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## Re: [Help-glpk] proposal for gnu lp/mip low-level format

 From: Andrew Makhorin Subject: Re: [Help-glpk] proposal for gnu lp/mip low-level format Date: Fri, 30 Jul 2004 17:48:48 +0400

```>FORTRAN can't do symbol tables?

I meant that one needs no symbol tables to read files in the proposed
formats.

>[regarding rationals, e.g. 2/3 != .666666667]

As well as 3*(2/3) != (3*2)/3 in finite precision arithimetic.

>That would be determined by the rounding mode,

I think that changing the rounding mode is a bad idea (though I agree
that some specific applications, for example, for interval arithmetic,
needs to control the rounding mode). All experts in numerical analysis
suggest that only the "correct" rounding (i.e. rounding to the nearest
representable floating-point number) must be used in all numerical
computations, because it provides highest accuracy unlike other rounding
modes.

> not the optimization option.

It must be so, but it is not. For example, the following fragment

eps = 1.0;
while (1.0 + eps > 1.0) eps *= 0.5;
eps += eps;

allows computing the machine precision. Many "clever" compilers trying
to "optimize" this fragment think that the condition 1.0 + eps > 1.0
is always true as in exact arithmetic, other compilers, again due to
optimization options, hold temporary results in floating-point registers
which might be wider than the declared precision of eps that involves a
wrong result, etc. I met this many times in my practice. The only right
way is *not to change* the precision and the order of computations at
all, however, this rule is ignored by most compiler developers.

As to using rational numbers as input data, I think this would be
actual, say, in a computer algebra system. In case of lp/mip it is
always possible to reduce rational numbers to integer ones by
appropriate scaling constraint and objective coefficients and bounds
of variables. For example, let there be a constraint:

(1/3) * x1 + (1/2) * x2 + (2/7) * x3 >= 5/6

Multiplying its both sides by lcm(3, 2, 7, 6) = 42 we have:

14 * x1 + 21 * x2 + 12 * x3 >= 35

i.e. using integer numbers (which are always read exactly even being
floating-point numbers) is sufficient.

Andrew Makhorin

```