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[Qemu-devel] [PATCH v4 08/14] tb hash: hash phys_pc, pc, and flags with

From: Emilio G. Cota
Subject: [Qemu-devel] [PATCH v4 08/14] tb hash: hash phys_pc, pc, and flags with xxhash
Date: Fri, 29 Apr 2016 23:33:11 -0400

For some workloads such as arm bootup, tb_phys_hash is performance-critical.
The is due to the high frequency of accesses to the hash table, originated
by (frequent) TLB flushes that wipe out the cpu-private tb_jmp_cache's.
More info:

To dig further into this I modified an arm image booting debian jessie to
immediately shut down after boot. Analysis revealed that quite a bit of time
is unnecessarily spent in tb_phys_hash: the cause is poor hashing that
results in very uneven loading of chains in the hash table's buckets;
the longest observed chain had ~550 elements.

The appended addresses this with two changes:

1) Use xxhash as the hash table's hash function. xxhash is a fast,
   high-quality hashing function.

2) Feed the hashing function with not just tb_phys, but also pc and flags.

This improves performance over using just tb_phys for hashing, since that
resulted in some hash buckets having many TB's, while others getting very few;
with these changes, the longest observed chain on a single hash bucket is
brought down from ~550 to ~40.

Tests show that the other element checked for in tb_find_physical,
cs_base, is always a match when tb_phys+pc+flags are a match,
so hashing cs_base is wasteful. It could be that this is an ARM-only
thing, though.

BTW, after this change the hash table should not be called "tb_hash_phys"
anymore; this is addressed later in this series.

This change gives consistent bootup time improvements. I tested two
host machines:
- Intel Xeon E5-2690: 11.6% less time
- Intel i7-4790K: 19.2% less time

Increasing the number of hash buckets yields further improvements. However,
using a larger, fixed number of buckets can degrade performance for other
workloads that do not translate as many blocks (600K+ for debian-jessie arm
bootup). This is dealt with later in this series.

Reviewed-by: Richard Henderson <address@hidden>
Reviewed-by: Alex Bennée <address@hidden>
Signed-off-by: Emilio G. Cota <address@hidden>
 cpu-exec.c             |  4 ++--
 include/exec/tb-hash.h |  8 ++++++--
 translate-all.c        | 11 ++++++-----
 3 files changed, 14 insertions(+), 9 deletions(-)

diff --git a/cpu-exec.c b/cpu-exec.c
index debc65c..395b302 100644
--- a/cpu-exec.c
+++ b/cpu-exec.c
@@ -224,7 +224,7 @@ static TranslationBlock *tb_find_physical(CPUState *cpu,
     CPUArchState *env = (CPUArchState *)cpu->env_ptr;
     TranslationBlock *tb, **ptb1;
-    unsigned int h;
+    uint32_t h;
     tb_page_addr_t phys_pc, phys_page1;
     target_ulong virt_page2;
@@ -233,7 +233,7 @@ static TranslationBlock *tb_find_physical(CPUState *cpu,
     /* find translated block using physical mappings */
     phys_pc = get_page_addr_code(env, pc);
     phys_page1 = phys_pc & TARGET_PAGE_MASK;
-    h = tb_phys_hash_func(phys_pc);
+    h = tb_hash_func(phys_pc, pc, flags);
     ptb1 = &tcg_ctx.tb_ctx.tb_phys_hash[h];
     for(;;) {
         tb = *ptb1;
diff --git a/include/exec/tb-hash.h b/include/exec/tb-hash.h
index 0f4e8a0..4b9635a 100644
--- a/include/exec/tb-hash.h
+++ b/include/exec/tb-hash.h
@@ -20,6 +20,9 @@
 #ifndef EXEC_TB_HASH
 #define EXEC_TB_HASH
+#include "exec/exec-all.h"
+#include "exec/tb-hash-xx.h"
 /* Only the bottom TB_JMP_PAGE_BITS of the jump cache hash bits vary for
    addresses on the same page.  The top bits are the same.  This allows
    TLB invalidation to quickly clear a subset of the hash table.  */
@@ -43,9 +46,10 @@ static inline unsigned int 
tb_jmp_cache_hash_func(target_ulong pc)
            | (tmp & TB_JMP_ADDR_MASK));
-static inline unsigned int tb_phys_hash_func(tb_page_addr_t pc)
+static inline
+uint32_t tb_hash_func(tb_page_addr_t phys_pc, target_ulong pc, int flags)
-    return (pc >> 2) & (CODE_GEN_PHYS_HASH_SIZE - 1);
+    return tb_hash_func5(phys_pc, pc, flags) & (CODE_GEN_PHYS_HASH_SIZE - 1);
diff --git a/translate-all.c b/translate-all.c
index 05c0b50..0463efc 100644
--- a/translate-all.c
+++ b/translate-all.c
@@ -965,13 +965,14 @@ void tb_phys_invalidate(TranslationBlock *tb, 
tb_page_addr_t page_addr)
     CPUState *cpu;
     PageDesc *p;
-    unsigned int h, n1;
+    unsigned int n1;
+    uint32_t h;
     tb_page_addr_t phys_pc;
     TranslationBlock *tb1, *tb2;
     /* remove the TB from the hash list */
     phys_pc = tb->page_addr[0] + (tb->pc & ~TARGET_PAGE_MASK);
-    h = tb_phys_hash_func(phys_pc);
+    h = tb_hash_func(phys_pc, tb->pc, tb->flags);
     tb_hash_remove(&tcg_ctx.tb_ctx.tb_phys_hash[h], tb);
     /* remove the TB from the page list */
@@ -1470,11 +1471,11 @@ static inline void tb_alloc_page(TranslationBlock *tb,
 static void tb_link_page(TranslationBlock *tb, tb_page_addr_t phys_pc,
                          tb_page_addr_t phys_page2)
-    unsigned int h;
+    uint32_t h;
     TranslationBlock **ptb;
-    /* add in the physical hash table */
-    h = tb_phys_hash_func(phys_pc);
+    /* add in the hash table */
+    h = tb_hash_func(phys_pc, tb->pc, tb->flags);
     ptb = &tcg_ctx.tb_ctx.tb_phys_hash[h];
     tb->phys_hash_next = *ptb;
     *ptb = tb;

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