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Re: [PATCH v1 13/13] migrate/ram: Tolerate partially changed mappings in

From: David Hildenbrand
Subject: Re: [PATCH v1 13/13] migrate/ram: Tolerate partially changed mappings in postcopy code
Date: Fri, 21 Feb 2020 09:48:37 +0100
User-agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:68.0) Gecko/20100101 Thunderbird/68.5.0

On 20.02.20 22:07, Peter Xu wrote:
> On Thu, Feb 20, 2020 at 12:24:42PM +0100, David Hildenbrand wrote:
>> On 19.02.20 17:17, David Hildenbrand wrote:
>>> When we partially change mappings (e.g., mmap over parts of an existing
>>> mmap) where we have a userfaultfd handler registered, the handler will
>>> implicitly be unregistered from the parts that changed. This is e.g., the
>>> case when doing a qemu_ram_remap(), but is also a preparation for RAM
>>> blocks with resizable allocations and we're shrinking RAM blocks.
>>> When the mapping is changed and the handler is removed, any waiters are
>>> woken up. Trying to place pages will fail. We can simply ignore erors
>>> due to that when placing pages - as the mapping changed on the migration
>>> destination, also the content is stale. E.g., after shrinking a RAM
>>> block, nobody should be using that memory. After doing a
>>> qemu_ram_remap(), the old memory is expected to have vanished.
>>> Let's tolerate such errors (but still warn for now) when placing pages.
>>> Also, add a comment why unregistering will continue to work even though
>>> the mapping might have changed.
>>> Cc: "Dr. David Alan Gilbert" <address@hidden>
>>> Cc: Juan Quintela <address@hidden>
>>> Cc: Peter Xu <address@hidden>
>>> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <address@hidden>
>>> Signed-off-by: David Hildenbrand <address@hidden>
>>> ---
>>>  migration/postcopy-ram.c | 43 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------
>>>  1 file changed, 37 insertions(+), 6 deletions(-)
>>> diff --git a/migration/postcopy-ram.c b/migration/postcopy-ram.c
>>> index c68caf4e42..df9d27c004 100644
>>> --- a/migration/postcopy-ram.c
>>> +++ b/migration/postcopy-ram.c
>>> @@ -506,6 +506,13 @@ static int cleanup_range(RAMBlock *rb, void *opaque)
>>>      range_struct.start = (uintptr_t)host_addr;
>>>      range_struct.len = length;
>>> +    /*
>>> +     * In case the mapping was partially changed since we enabled userfault
>>> +     * (esp. when whrinking RAM blocks and we have resizable allocations, 
>>> or
>>> +     * via qemu_ram_remap()), the userfaultfd handler was already removed 
>>> for
>>> +     * the mappings that changed. Unregistering will, however, still work 
>>> and
>>> +     * ignore mappings without a registered handler.
>>> +     */
>>>      if (ioctl(mis->userfault_fd, UFFDIO_UNREGISTER, &range_struct)) {
>>>          error_report("%s: userfault unregister %s", __func__, 
>>> strerror(errno));
>>> @@ -1239,10 +1246,28 @@ int postcopy_place_page(MigrationIncomingState 
>>> *mis, void *host, void *from,
>>>       */
>>>      if (qemu_ufd_copy_ioctl(mis->userfault_fd, host, from, pagesize, rb)) {
>>>          int e = errno;
>>> -        error_report("%s: %s copy host: %p from: %p (size: %zd)",
>>> -                     __func__, strerror(e), host, from, pagesize);
>>> -        return -e;
>>> +        /*
>>> +         * When the mapping gets partially changed before we try to place 
>>> a page
>>> +         * (esp. when whrinking RAM blocks and we have resizable 
>>> allocations, or
>>> +         * via qemu_ram_remap()), the userfaultfd handler will be removed 
>>> and
>>> +         * placing pages will fail. In that case, any waiter was already 
>>> woken
>>> +         * up when the mapping was changed. We can safely ignore this, as
>>> +         * mappings that change once we're running on the destination imply
>>> +         * that memory of these mappings vanishes. Let's still print a 
>>> warning
>>> +         * for now.
>>> +         *
>> After talking to Andrea, on mapping changes, no waiter will be woken up
>> automatically. We have to do an UFFDIO_WAKE, which even works when there
>> is no longer a handler registered for that reason. Interesting stuff :)
> Yes actually it makes sense. :)
> Though I do think it should hardly happen, otherwise even if it's
> waked up it'll still try to access that GPA and KVM will be confused
> on that and exit because no memslot was setup for that.  Then I think
> it's a fatal VM error.  In other words, I feel like the resizing
> should be blocked somehow by that stall vcpu too (e.g., even if we
> want to reboot a Linux guest, it'll sync between vcpus, and same to
> bootstraping).

I am actually not concerned about KVM. More about some QEMU thread that
accesses bad RAM block state. With resizable allocations that thread
would get a segfault - here it could happen that it simply waits
forever. I guess a segfault would be better to debug than some thread
being stuck waiting for a uffd.

I do agree that this might be very rare (IOW, a BUG in the code :) ).
And we might skip the wakeup for now. But we should set the page
received in the bitmap, even if placement failed due to changed mappings.

Resizes are properly synchronized with KVM suing memory listeners. E.g.,
with resizable allocations, we will only shrink the RAM block *after*
the kvm slots where modified. (resizing kvm slots while VCPUs are in KVM
is a different problem to solve on my side :) )

> Btw, I feel like we cannot always depend on the fact that userfaultfd
> will dissapear itself if the VMA is unmapped, because even it's true
> it'll only be true for shrinking of memories.  How about extending
> memory in the future?  So IIUC if we want to really fix this, we

As far as I understood, growing works as designed.

1. Destination VM started and initialized.
2. Precopy data is loaded
- RAM block sizes will be synchronized to the source.
3. Guest starts running
- Any RAM block resize will differ to the source.

userfaultfd handlers will be registered just before 3. Growing in 3
means that we are bigger than the RAM block on the source. There is
nothing to migrate -> no usefaultfd handler (it would even be bad to
register one).

> probably need to take care of uffd register and unregister of changed
> memory regions, which AFAIUI can be done inside your newly introduced
> resize hook...

We have to be careful, because once we resize while the guest is
running, any resizes race with precopy code. Having that said, it should
not be necessary as far as I understand.
> We probably need to take care of other things that might be related to
> ramblock resizing too in the same notifier.  One I can think of is to
> realloc the ramblock.receivedmap otherwise we could have some bit
> cleared forever for shrinking memories (which logically when migration
> finishes that bitmap should be all set).

Realloc is not needed (as long as we keep allocating for max_length),
but eventually simply setting all bits of pages that are now outside of
used_length as received (which can be done atomically AFAIK, which is nice).

Having that said, I am currently trying to test the postcopy stuff with
virtio-mem and resizable allocations. So stay tuned :)

Thanks a lot for your valuable feedback!


David / dhildenb

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