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www/philosophy nonsoftware-copyleft.ca.html po/...


From: GNUN
Subject: www/philosophy nonsoftware-copyleft.ca.html po/...
Date: Sun, 9 Aug 2020 13:30:40 -0400 (EDT)

CVSROOT:        /web/www
Module name:    www
Changes by:     GNUN <gnun>     20/08/09 13:30:40

Modified files:
        philosophy     : nonsoftware-copyleft.ca.html 
Added files:
        philosophy/po  : nonsoftware-copyleft.ca-diff.html 

Log message:
        Automatic update by GNUnited Nations.

CVSWeb URLs:
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/nonsoftware-copyleft.ca.html?cvsroot=www&r1=1.31&r2=1.32
http://web.cvs.savannah.gnu.org/viewcvs/www/philosophy/po/nonsoftware-copyleft.ca-diff.html?cvsroot=www&rev=1.1

Patches:
Index: nonsoftware-copyleft.ca.html
===================================================================
RCS file: /web/www/www/philosophy/nonsoftware-copyleft.ca.html,v
retrieving revision 1.31
retrieving revision 1.32
diff -u -b -r1.31 -r1.32
--- nonsoftware-copyleft.ca.html        11 Jul 2016 08:35:14 -0000      1.31
+++ nonsoftware-copyleft.ca.html        9 Aug 2020 17:30:39 -0000       1.32
@@ -1,4 +1,9 @@
-<!--#set var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/nonsoftware-copyleft.en.html" 
-->
+<!--#set var="PO_FILE"
+ value='<a href="/philosophy/po/nonsoftware-copyleft.ca.po">
+ https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/po/nonsoftware-copyleft.ca.po</a>'
+ --><!--#set var="ORIGINAL_FILE" value="/philosophy/nonsoftware-copyleft.html"
+ --><!--#set var="DIFF_FILE" 
value="/philosophy/po/nonsoftware-copyleft.ca-diff.html"
+ --><!--#set var="OUTDATED_SINCE" value="2020-06-10" --><!--#set 
var="ENGLISH_PAGE" value="/philosophy/nonsoftware-copyleft.en.html" -->
 
 <!--#include virtual="/server/header.ca.html" -->
 <!-- Parent-Version: 1.77 -->
@@ -9,6 +14,7 @@
 
 <!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/nonsoftware-copyleft.translist" -->
 <!--#include virtual="/server/banner.ca.html" -->
+<!--#include virtual="/server/outdated.ca.html" -->
 <h2>Aplicar el copyleft fora de l'àmbit del programari</h2>
 
 <p>per <a href="http://dsl.org/";><strong>Michael Stutz</strong></a></p>
@@ -256,7 +262,7 @@
 <p class="unprintable"><!-- timestamp start -->
 Updated:
 
-$Date: 2016/07/11 08:35:14 $
+$Date: 2020/08/09 17:30:39 $
 
 <!-- timestamp end -->
 </p>

Index: po/nonsoftware-copyleft.ca-diff.html
===================================================================
RCS file: po/nonsoftware-copyleft.ca-diff.html
diff -N po/nonsoftware-copyleft.ca-diff.html
--- /dev/null   1 Jan 1970 00:00:00 -0000
+++ po/nonsoftware-copyleft.ca-diff.html        9 Aug 2020 17:30:40 -0000       
1.1
@@ -0,0 +1,269 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
+    "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd";>
+<!-- Generated by GNUN -->
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"; xml:lang="en" lang="en">
+<head>
+<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
+<title>/philosophy/nonsoftware-copyleft.html-diff</title>
+<style type="text/css">
+span.removed { background-color: #f22; color: #000; }
+span.inserted { background-color: #2f2; color: #000; }
+</style></head>
+<body><pre>
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/header.html" --&gt;
+&lt;!-- Parent-Version: <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>1.77</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>1.92 --&gt;
+&lt;!-- This page is derived from 
/server/standards/boilerplate.html</em></ins></span> --&gt;
+&lt;title&gt;Applying Copyleft To Non-Software Information
+- GNU Project - Free Software Foundation&lt;/title&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/philosophy/po/nonsoftware-copyleft.translist" --&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/banner.html" --&gt;
+&lt;h2&gt;Applying Copyleft To Non-Software Information&lt;/h2&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;by &lt;a href="http://dsl.org/"&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Michael 
Stutz&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;h3 id="what"&gt;First, what is Copyleft?&lt;/h3&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The entry for
+&ldquo;&lt;a href="/copyleft/copyleft.html"&gt;copyleft&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo; in the
+definitive hacker lexicon, the
+&lt;a href="http://www.jargon.net/jargonfile/c/copyleft.html"&gt;Jargon
+File&lt;/a&gt;, reads:&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;blockquote&gt;&lt;p&gt;
+   copyleft: /kop'ee-left/ [play on &lsquo;copyright&rsquo;] n. 1. The
+   copyright notice (&lsquo;General Public License&rsquo;) carried by
+   GNU EMACS and other Free Software Foundation software, granting
+   reuse and reproduction rights to all comers (but see also General
+   Public Virus).  2. By extension, any copyright notice intended to
+   achieve similar aims.
+&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/blockquote&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;The idea of &lt;a href="/copyleft/copyleft.html"&gt;copyleft&lt;/a&gt;
+originated with &uuml;ber-hacker &lt;a href="http://www.stallman.org/"&gt;
+Richard Stallman&lt;/a&gt; in 1983 when he started
+the &lt;a href="/gnu/gnu-history.html"&gt;GNU Project&lt;/a&gt;. In brief, his
+goal was &ldquo;to develop a complete free Unix-like operating
+system.&rdquo; As part of that goal, he invented and wrote
+the &lt;a href="/copyleft/gpl.html"&gt;GNU General Public License&lt;/a&gt;, a
+legal construct that included a copyright notice but added to it (or,
+technically, removed certain restrictions), so its terms allowed for
+the freedoms of reuse, modification and reproduction of a work or its
+derivatives to be kept for all.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Normal &lt;a <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>href="http://www.angelfire.com/planet/carroll/"&gt;</strong></del></span>
 <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190805143144/http://www.angelfire.com/planet/carroll/index2.html"&gt;</em></ins></span>
+copyright&lt;/a&gt; asserts ownership and identification of the author, as
+well as prevents the use of the author's name as author of a distorted
+version of the work; it also prevents intentional distortion of the
+work by others and prevents destruction of the work. But it also
+carries other restrictions &mdash; such as restricting the
+reproduction or modification of a work.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Copyleft contains the normal copyright statement, asserting ownership
+and identification of the author. However, it then &lt;em&gt;gives 
away&lt;/em&gt;
+some of the other rights implicit in the normal copyright: it says
+that not only are you free to redistribute this work, but you are also
+free to change the work. However, you cannot claim to have written the
+original work, nor can you claim that these changes were created by
+someone else. Finally, all derivative works must also be placed under
+these terms.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;h3 id="why"&gt;Why is Copyleft important, or even necessary?&lt;/h3&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Certain restrictions of copyright &mdash; such as distribution and
+modification &mdash; are not very useful to &ldquo;cyberia,&rdquo; the
+&ldquo;free, apolitical, democratic community&rdquo; that constitutes
+the internetworked digital world.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+With computers, perfect copies of a digital work can easily be made
+&mdash; and even modified, or further distributed &mdash; by others,
+with no loss of the original work. As individuals interact in cyberia,
+sharing information &mdash; then reacting and building upon it &mdash;
+is not only natural, but this is the &lt;em&gt;only&lt;/em&gt; way for 
individual
+beings to thrive in a community. In essence, the idea of copyleft is
+basic to the natural propagation of digital information among humans
+in a society. This is why the regular notion of copyright does not
+make sense in the context of cyberia.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Simple &lsquo;public domain&rsquo; publication will not work, because
+some will try to abuse this for profit by depriving others of freedom;
+as long as we live in a world with a legal system where legal
+abstractions such as copyright are necessary, as responsible artists
+or scientists we will need the formal legal abstractions of copyleft
+that ensure our freedom and the freedom of others.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Much literature has been written on this subject by Stallman, and the
+details can be found in the
+excellent &lt;a href="/philosophy/philosophy.html"&gt;texts&lt;/a&gt; published
+by the Free Software Foundation.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;h3 id="gpl"&gt;So why isn't the FSF's GNU GPL good enough?&lt;/h3&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+It &lt;em&gt;is&lt;/em&gt; good enough! The GNU GPL is not only a document of
+significant historical and literary value, but it is in wide use today
+for countless software programs &mdash; those as formal part of the
+GNU Project and otherwise. The GNU GPL originated for the specific
+goal of sharing software among computer programmers. However, looking
+closely at the GPL, it appears that the same License can be easily
+applied to non-software information.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Alternately, a document can be copylefted under different, or much
+simpler terms; whether or not the GNU GPL is the specific means to the
+end is not the issue, although the GNU GPL certainly provides the most
+explicit (and canonical) definition of copyleft.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;h3 id="how"&gt;Ok, so how do I copyleft my non-software work?&lt;/h3&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+It's simple. While a particular situation may require or inspire its
+own specific License, possibly similar to the GNU GPL, all that a
+copyleft notice must really do is fulfill the points as defined above
+in &ldquo;&lt;a href="#what"&gt;First, what is Copyleft?&lt;/a&gt;&rdquo;. 
Using
+the GNU GPL to copyleft your work is easy.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The GNU GPL states that it &ldquo;applies to any program or other work
+which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may
+be distributed under the terms of this General Public License,&rdquo;
+so this &ldquo;Program,&rdquo; then, may not necessarily be a computer
+software program &mdash; any work of any nature that can be
+copyrighted can be copylefted with the GNU GPL.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The GNU GPL references the &ldquo;source code&rdquo; of a work; this
+&ldquo;source code&rdquo; will mean different things for different
+kinds of information, but the definition of &ldquo;source code&rdquo;
+&mdash; provided in the GNU GPL &mdash; holds true in any case:
+&ldquo;The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work
+for making modifications to it.&rdquo;&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+The notices attached to the work can not always be attached &ldquo;to
+the start of each source file,&rdquo; as recommended by the GNU
+GPL. In this case, the directory that the files reside should contain
+a notice, as should any accompanying documentation or literature.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Finally, for non-software works the &ldquo;copyright&rdquo; line
+included at the start of the &ldquo;source code&rdquo; of the work is
+modified in language slightly:&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;pre&gt;
+    &lt;one line to give the work's name and a brief idea of what it does.&gt;
+    Copyright (C) yyyy  &lt;name of author&gt;
+
+    This information is free; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+    under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+    the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+    (at your option) any later version.
+
+    This work is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+    but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+    MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+    GNU General Public License for more details.
+
+    You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+    along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software
+    Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, 
USA.
+&lt;/pre&gt;
+
+&lt;h3 id="where"&gt;Where do I go from here?&lt;/h3&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Here are sources for further information on copyleft, especially as
+it is applied to non-software information:&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;The &lt;a href="/home.html"&gt;rest of this web site&lt;/a&gt; is the 
home of
+the GNU Project and is the canonical source for copyleft and
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>freely-redistributable 
software.&lt;/p&gt;</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>free software&lt;a 
href="#f1"&gt;(1)&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;</em></ins></span>
+
+&lt;p&gt;&lt;a href="http://www.ram.org/"&gt;Ram Samudrala&lt;/a&gt; wrote
+the &lt;a href="http://www.ram.org/ramblings/philosophy/fmp.html"&gt;Free
+Music Philosophy&lt;/a&gt; and creates copylefted music as the
+band Twisted Helices.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Some of my own non-software copylefted works include texts
+(literature, reviews, &lt;a 
href="http://dsl.org/cookbook/cookbook_toc.html"&gt;technical&lt;/a&gt;)
+and music.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;h3 id="fn"&gt;Footnote&lt;/h3&gt;
+
+&lt;ol&gt;
+&lt;li id="f1"&gt;Before 2020, &ldquo;free software&rdquo; was confusingly
+referred to as &ldquo;freely-redistributable&rdquo;.&lt;/li&gt;
+&lt;/ol&gt;</em></ins></span>
+
+&lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- for id="content", starts in the include above --&gt;
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/footer.html" --&gt;
+&lt;div id="footer"&gt;
+&lt;div class="unprintable"&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Please send general FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to
+&lt;a href="mailto:gnu@gnu.org"&gt;&lt;gnu@gnu.org&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.
+There are also &lt;a href="/contact/"&gt;other ways to contact&lt;/a&gt;
+the FSF.  Broken links and other corrections or suggestions can be sent
+to &lt;a 
href="mailto:webmasters@gnu.org"&gt;&lt;webmasters@gnu.org&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;&lt;!-- TRANSLATORS: Ignore the original text in this paragraph,
+        replace it with the translation of these two:
+
+        We work hard and do our best to provide accurate, good quality
+        translations.  However, we are not exempt from imperfection.
+        Please send your comments and general suggestions in this regard
+        to &lt;a href="mailto:web-translators@gnu.org"&gt;
+        &lt;web-translators@gnu.org&gt;&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;
+
+        &lt;p&gt;For information on coordinating and submitting translations of
+        our web pages, see &lt;a
+        href="/server/standards/README.translations.html"&gt;Translations
+        README&lt;/a&gt;. --&gt;
+Please see the &lt;a
+href="/server/standards/README.translations.html"&gt;Translations
+README&lt;/a&gt; for information on coordinating and <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>submitting</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>contributing</em></ins></span> translations
+of this article.&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- Regarding copyright, in general, standalone pages (as opposed to
+     files generated as part of manuals) on the GNU web server should
+     be under CC BY-ND <span class="removed"><del><strong>3.0 
US.</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>4.0.</em></ins></span>  Please do NOT change or 
remove this
+     without talking with the webmasters or licensing team first.
+     Please make sure the copyright date is consistent with the
+     document.  For web pages, it is ok to list just the latest year the
+     document was modified, or published.
+     
+     If you wish to list earlier years, that is ok too.
+     Either "2001, 2002, 2003" or "2001-2003" are ok for specifying
+     years, as long as each year in the range is in fact a copyrightable
+     year, i.e., a year in which the document was published (including
+     being publicly visible on the web or in a revision control system).
+     
+     There is more detail about copyright years in the GNU Maintainers
+     Information document, www.gnu.org/prep/maintain. --&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;Copyright &copy; <span 
class="removed"><del><strong>1997</strong></del></span> <span 
class="inserted"><ins><em>1997, 2020</em></ins></span> Michael Stutz&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;p&gt;
+Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is
+permitted in any medium, provided this notice is preserved.
+&lt;/p&gt;
+
+&lt;!--#include virtual="/server/bottom-notes.html" --&gt;
+
+&lt;p class="unprintable"&gt;Updated:
+&lt;!-- timestamp start --&gt;
+$Date: 2020/08/09 17:30:40 $
+&lt;!-- timestamp end --&gt;
+&lt;/p&gt;
+&lt;/div&gt;
+<span class="removed"><del><strong>&lt;/div&gt;</strong></del></span>
+<span class="inserted"><ins><em>&lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- for class="inner", starts 
in the banner include --&gt;</em></ins></span>
+&lt;/body&gt;
+&lt;/html&gt;
+</pre></body></html>



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